Effects of Instructional Materials used at the Community Learning Resource Centers on Adult Learners’ Participation in Community Development Activities in Nyamira North Sub-county Kenya

Benjamin Obonyo Bella, Peter Koome, Susan Kamuru


This research sought to investigate the effects of instructional materials used at community resource centers on adult literacy learners in community development activities with a specific focus on Nyamira North Sub–County, Kenya. The study was guided by the constructivism theory of learning. It employed the descriptive survey design where a sample of 254 learners was drawn from a population of 492 adult learners in the study area using the stratified random sampling method. Questionnaires were administered to elicit information from the respondents. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. From the findings, there was a clear indication that textbooks and sewing machines were more available and adequately utilized. Other resources like computers, projectors, ovens, banana ripening chambers, and videos were least available and inadequate. Results further showed that most of the adult learners were involved in small-scale farming as their main economic activity with most of their products was selling them to the market in raw form. Some learners were also involved in natural resource management activities with the majority of them planting trees, water resources management, bridges, and path construction. The study recommended that to diversify the livelihoods of the communities in the study area, the Directorate of Adult Education should provide diverse instructional materials such as ICT facilities and equipment that which will impart value addition skills to the learners.


Instructional Materials, Community Development, Adult Learners, Resource Centers

Full Text:



Ahmad, F., & Paul, M. (2017). Learning strategies and audio-visual aids used in adult education in India: A historical overview. Transcience, 8(2). https://www2.hu-berlin.de/transcience/Vol8_No2_11_39.pdf.

Ahmed, M. (2010). Education as Transformation–Education for transformation. Development, 53(4), 511 517.

Akello, J., Rukundo, E., & Musiimenta, P. (2017). Functional adult literacy: An alternative gateway to grassroots women's improved income generation in Lango Sub-region, Northern Uganda. Adult Education Quarterly, 67(2), 79-96. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741713616685143.

Awgichew, S., & Seyoum, Y. (2017). Integrated functional adult literacy: Existing practices and challenges in Eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 5(4), 86-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.5n.4p.86.

Awgichew, S., &Seyoum, Y. (2017). Integrated functional adult literacy: existing practices and challenges in Eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 5(4), 86-97.

Berry, J., Billings, H., Ernste, L., Soto, M., Frimannsdottir, K….. & Patten, C. (2017). Development of a self-directed, online-learning curriculum to increase community-engaged research in clinical and translational science. Journal of Clinical and Translational Science, 1, 135-139. https://doi.org/10.1017/cts.2016.19.

Bolton, L (2017). Effective adult education. K4D Helpdesk Report. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.

Castle, L., Colby, S., Kattelmann, K., Olfert, M., Mathews, D….& White, A. (2019). Development of the iCook 4-H curriculum for youth and adults: Cooking, eating, and playing together for childhood obesity prevention. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 51(3), S60-S68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2018.11.006.

Cholewinski, M. (2009). An introduction to constructivism and authentic activity. Bulletin of the Faculty of Contemporary International Studies, 9(5), 238-316.

Connolly, B. (2013). Adult education in times of crisis: from Trojan Horses to New Ethics. EXPLORE The quarterly magazine from AONTAS, the National Adult Learning Organisation, 24, 15-17.

Dagar, V., & Yadav, A. (2016). Constructivism: A program for teaching and learning. Arts and Social Sciences Journal, 7(4). DOI: 10.4172/2151-6200.1000200.

Fenandez, R., Peyton, J., & Schaetzel, K. (2017). A survey of writing instruction in adult ESL programs: Are teaching practices meeting adult learner needs? Journal of Research and Practice for Adult Literacy, Secondary, and Basic Education, 6(2), 6-20.

Gabriel, M. N., Mwangi, J., Ngesu, L., Muasya, I., & Vengi, A. K. (2016). The challenges facing adult and continuing education in Kenya. The challenges facing adult and continuing education in Kenya (Unpublished masters' thesis). University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Govinda, R. (2017). The Status of Adult Learning and Education in Asia and the Pacific. UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning

Gunduz, N., & Hursen, C. (2014). Constructivism in teaching and learning: Context analysis evaluation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191(15), 526- 533. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.640.

Iucu, R., & Marin, E. (2014). Authentic learning in adult education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 142(14), 410- 415.

Lakstian, V. (2016). The contributions of literacy skills to national development. Leksema Journal, 1(2), 111-118. DOI: 10.22515/ljbs.v1i2.101.

Lovren, V., & Popovic, K. (2017). Lifelong learning for sustainable development: Is adult education left behind? In: Leal Filho W., Mifsud M., Pace P. (eds) Handbook of Lifelong Learning for Sustainable Development. World Sustainability Series. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63534-7_1.

Mabuza, R. V. (2019). Perceptions of adult education teachers about their working conditions in the Adult Basic Education and Training programme in the Gauteng East Education District (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Africa, South Africa.

Mollel, E., Momanyi, M., & Ateka, F. (2019). Effectiveness of adult education program in promoting development among the Maasai Community in Arusha District Council, Tanzania. Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies, 3(8), 211- 229.

Mugenda, O. M. & Mugenda, A.G. (2003). Research Methods, Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. ACT, Nairobi.

Munialo, M. J. (2017). Paradigm shifts in access and trends in the management of education for societal development. Retrieved 15th April 2020 from http://erepository. kibu.ac.ke/ handle /1234 56789/567.

Németh, B. (2015). Lifelong learning for all adults? A new concept for the United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organization—Limits and opportunities for a changing intergovernmental organization. In Global perspectives on adult education and learning policy (pp. 165-178). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Ngaruiya, B. N. (2012). An analysis of the learning resource centre concept and its implication for diploma teacher training colleges in Kenya (Unpublished Thesis). Kenyatta University, Kenya. https://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/4836.

Nkiru, O. (2015). Quality assurance in the effective teaching and learning of adult education for national development and sustainability in Nigeria. Inosr Arts and Management, 1(1), 9-14.

Nyatuka, B. O., Ndiku, J. M., & Kakamega, K. (2015). Adult and Continuing Education in Kenya: The Need for Transformative Leadership. World Journal of Education, 5(1).

Obiozor, O., & Aniemeka, G. (2019). Strategies for repositioning instruction in adult learning centres for sustainable development of adult learners in Umuahia, Abia State. International Journal of Educational Benchmark, 14(1), 1-10.

Okemwa, J. M. (2012). Factors influencing implementation of post literacy programme in Kenya: The case of adult education centers in Homa Bay District (Doctoral dissertation). University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Orodho, J. A. (2016). Financing Adult Education: How Adequate are Current Sources in Facilitating Access and Participation in Centres in Murang'a South Sub- County, Murang'a County, Kenya? Journal of Education and Practice, 10.

Richmond, M., Robinson, C., & Sachs-Israel, M. (2008). The global literacy challenge: A profile of youth and adult literacy at the mid-point of the United Nations literacy decade 2003-2012. Paris: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Sokolovsky, Y. V. (2015). On Lifelong Learning in China: Old Patterns and New Prospects. Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 11(8), 2663- 2668. DOI: 10.17516/1997-1370-2015-8-11-2663-2668.

Srisawang, L. (2015, July 6). Community Learning Centres in Thailand. Retrieved 3rd April 2020 from https://www.dvv-international.de/en/adult-education-and-development/editions/aed-742010/experiences-from-asia/community-learning-centres-in-thailand/.

Taylor, E., Tisdell, E., & Sprow, K. (2010). Financial literacy for adult learners in community-based settings: A mixed methods study. Paper presented in the 2010 Adult Education Research Conference Proceedings, Sacramento, CA.

Thomas, A., Menon, A., Boruff, J., Rodriguez, A., & Ahmed, S. (2014). Application of social constructivists learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: A scoping review. Implementation Science, 9(54). https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-9-54.

UNESCO (2013). Data for sustainable development goals. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

UNESCO (2012). Graduate Employability in Asia. ISBN: 978–92–9223–395–2 (Electronic

version), pp. 59–85.Publisher: UNESCO Bangkok

UNESCO (2008). Community learning centres: Country reports from Asia. Bangkok: UNESCO Office Bangkok.

Weldemichael, F. A. (2018). Integrated Functional Adult Literacy Education for Empowerment and Sustainable Development in Ethiopia (Unpublished thesis). University of Oslo.

Yeoh, E., & Chu, K. (2012). Literacy, education and economic development in contemporary China. China ASEAN Perspective Forum, 2(1&2), 11-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2207559.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.9n.1p.15


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.