The Adequacy of Environmental Education Techniques and Strategies Employed in Uluguru Mountains Hotspot

Joseph Manase


Various studies about the environment consider different factors as sources of environmental deterioration. Such studies have not paid much attention on education as the remedy for environmental sustainability. Other studies have rarely considered environmental education approaches as the reason for lack of success in environmental education arrangements. This research had a focus on the adequacy of environmental education approaches, techniques and strategies employed in Uluguru Mountains in Morogoro. Social constructivist theory by Vigortsky (1958) was employed while case study research design and qualitative approach were deemed important for this research. Data collection was done by using interview and Focus Group Discussion methods. Objectives of the research were to: investigate adequacy of Environmental Education content, methods, awareness as well as the use of indigenous environmental knowledge. The findings show that, environmental education methods implemented in Uluguru Mountains are not satisfactory enough to improve environmental conditions. Again, indigenous knowledge has been less integrated into Environmental Education. Different environmental education methods need to be improved and integrated to create sustainable learning outcomes within Environmental Education.

Keywords: Adequacy, Environmental Education, Approaches, Strategies, hotspot

Full Text:



Dillon, J., Rickinson, M., Teamey, K., Morris, M., Choi, M. ., Sanders, D., et al. (2006). The value of outdoor learning: Evidence from research in the UK and elsewhere.School Science Review, 87(320), 107-111.

Edje, O. (2004). “Indigenous knowledge systems: Its role in household foods security.” Paper presented at a conference on Embracing Information Communication Technology in the Development of Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Swaziland. Esibayeni Lodge, Matsapha

FAO (2010). Global forest resources assessment. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Ferreira, J. (2009). Unsettling orthodoxies: Education for the environment/ for sustainability. Environmental Education Research, 15(5), 607-620.

Fien, J. (1993). Environmental Education: A pathway to sustainability. Victoria, Australia: Deakin University.

Gardner, F. (2009). Affirming values: Using critical reflection to explore meaning and professional practice. Reflective Practice, 10(2), 179-190.

Gough, A. (1997). Founders of environmental education: Narratives of the Australian environmental education movement. Environmental Education Research, 3(1), 43–57.

Israel, G., Coleman, D. L., Ilvento, T. (1993). Student involvement in community needs assessment. Journal of Community Development Society, 24(2), 249-271.

Kimaryo, L. (2011). Integration of environmental education in primary schools in Tanzania: Stockholm University Press, Stockholm.

Marcinkowski, T. J. (2010). Contemporary challenges and opportunities in environmental education: Where are we headed and what deserves our attention? Journal of Environmental Education, 41(1), 34-54.

Mosimege, M. (2005). National priorities in Indigenous Knowledge Systems: 114 Indigenous Knowledge in Disaster Management in Africa implications for research and curriculum development. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS) 4(1), 31-37.

O-sak, K. M. (1991). Factors Influencing the Use of the Environment in Science Teaching: A Study of Biology Teaching in Tanzania, Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Alberta, Canada.

Palmer, J., (1999). Environmental Education in the 21st Century: Theory, Practice, Progress, and Promise, Routledge.

Reynolds, M. (2011). Reflective practice: Origins and interpretations. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 8(1), 5-13.

Roth, R., Cantell, D., Bosquet, W. (1980). Impact on environmental education. In Hammerman, W. M. (ed.) Fifty years of resident outdoor education (1930-1980): Its impact on American education (p. 88). Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association.

Stenberg, K. (2010). Identity work as a tool for promoting the professional development of student teachers. Reflective Practice, 11(3), 331-346.

Stevenson, R. B. (2010). Environmental learning and agency in diverse educational and cultural contexts. In R. Stevenson & J. Dillon (Eds.), Engaging environmental education: Learning, culture, and agency (pp. 219-238). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

URT (2007). National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty. Dar es Salaam: Government Printers.

Usang, E. (1992). Strategies for green literacy. In Convergence XVI(2), 44-5.

UNEP (2008). Methods Agenda 21 Chapter 36 – Promoting Education, Public Awareness and Training.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.