Development of the Effective Musical Notation Reading Strategies Scale in Learning Violin and Factors That Affect the Level of Using Such Strategies

Fatma Ceyda Cinardal, Seyda Cilden


This correlational study consisted of 396 undergraduate violin students studying at three different types of faculties in 18 universities in the 2016-2017 academic year in Turkiye. Data collection was made by using the Effective Musical Notation Reading Strategies Scale (EMNRSS) developed by the researcher and a personal information form. The data were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis for construct validity, and in order to determine the internal consistency of the scale within the framework of the reliability tests, the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients were calculated. The three-factor structure that emerged in the exploratory factor analysis was confirmed according to the fit index values obtained as a result of the confirmatory factor analysis (X2/SD = 2.38; NFI = 0.93; CFI = 0.96; GFI = 0.84; RMSEA = 0.059). The alpha value for the first factor of the scale (post-play) was calculated as 0.89 whereas such value was 0.87 for the second factor (during-play) and 0.83 for the third factor (pre-play). The alpha value calculated for the total scale score was 0.92. As a result of the analyses, a 34-item five-point Likert-type scale with three factors was developed. The EMNRSS may be utilized in future research to explore the factors that affect students’ level of using such strategies. The applicability of the EMNRSS to levels other than undergraduate level may also be explored.


Violin Education, Musical Notation, Scale, Critical Thinking, Effective Reading Strategies

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