Willingness of Syrians Who Are Learning Turkish as Second/Foreign Language in Terms of Communicating in Arabic and Turkish

Gülnur Aydin, İlke Altuntaş Gürsoy

Abstract


Affective variables in the second/foreign language learning process affect success and proficiency in the target language. Being willing, one of these variables, draws attention as a factor affecting both academic and social success. The importance given to “communication” by the reference frames, programs and guidelines offered for language learning necessitates turning it into a skill. Skill can be developed to the extent of willingness. In this context, determining whether or not Turkish learners as a second/foreign language are willing to communicate or at what level they are willing will eliminate the problems by revealing the deficiencies and obstacles in communication skills. Moreover, it is of vital importance for the revision and reorganization of the language teaching process and practices. The aim of the study is to determine the level of willingness to communicate in Arabic and Turkish among Syrians learning Turkish in Turkey. A quantitative descriptive approach was adopted in the research. Among the non-random sampling methods, convenience sampling was preferred. The data were collected from 102 Syrian students, 35 females and 67 males, who were studying at university and registered with the Aydın Governorship Provincial Directorate of Migration Management. The Willingness to Communicate Inside and Outside the Classroom Scales developed in six-point Likert type, adapted by Al-Murtadha (2020) from McCroskey and Baer (1985) and Cao and Philp (2006), were used. Parametric methods were used in statistical analysis. The dependent groups t-test method was used to compare two different scale scores in a single group, and the independent groups t-test method was used to compare a single score in two different groups. As a result of the analysis; it has been determined that students’ willingness to communicate is especially high in their mother tongue, Arabic. It was determined that there was a significant difference in favor of Arabic inside and outside the classroom. There was no statistically significant difference between men and women for Turkish and Arabic.

Keywords


Willingness to Communicate, Syrians Learning Turkish, Turkish as Second/Foreign Language, Voluntariness to Communicate

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afghari, A., & Sadeghi, E. (2012). The effect of EFL learners’ gender and second language proficiency on willingness to communicate. Sheikhbahaee University EFL Journal, 1(1), 49-65. DOI: 10.22034/EFL.2012.79161

Ahmadi, H. S., Ansarifar, A. & Ansarifar, M. (2015). Exploring the relationship between willingness to communicate in English, and social/cultural capital among Iranian undergraduate English majors. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(2), 413-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0502.24

Al-Murtadha, M. A. (2020). The relationships among self-reported and observed first language and second language willingness to communicate and academic achievement. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 34(1), 80-94. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2020.1727495

Alyılmaz, S. & Polatcan, F. (2018). İletişim kurma istekliliği ölçeği: bir ölçek geliştirme çalışması. Uluslararası Türkçe Edebiyat Kültür Eğitim Dergisi, 7(1), 447-458. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/teke/issue/36208/407626

Bektaş, Y. (2007). Turkish students’ willingness to communicate in English. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Buca Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 21, 115-123. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12397/299

Boz, B. Y. (2020). Yabancılara Türkçe öğreitminde ikinci dil motivasyonel benlik sistemi ve ikinci dilde iletişim kurma istekliliği arasındaki ilişki [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Türkiyat Araştırmaları Enstitüsü, Ankara.

Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2010). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Pegem Akademi.

Denies, K., Yashima, T., & Janssen, R. (2015). Classroom versus societal willingness to communicate: Investigating French as a second language in Flanders. The Modern Language Journal, 99(4), 718-739. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12276

Cao, Y., & Philip, J. (2006). Interactional context and willigness to communicate: A comparison of behavior in whole class, group and dyadic interaction. System, 34, 480-493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.05.002

Çetin, K., & Kılıçkaya, F. (2019). An inquiry into Turkish academicians’ willingness to communicate in English. Journalof Narrative and Language Studies, 7(13), 289-308. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338764717_An_Inquiry_into_Turkish_Academicians’_Willingness_to_Communicate_in_English

Clément, R., Baker, S. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2003). Willingness to communicate in a second language: the effects of context, norms, and vitality. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 22(2), 190-209. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/216308657_Willingness_to_Communicate_in_a_Second_Language_The_Effects_of_Context_Norms_and_Vitality

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Fahim, A. & Dhamotharan, M. (2016). Willingness to communicate in English among trainee teachers in a Malaysian private university. Journal of Social Sciences, 12(2), 105-112. https://doi.org/10.3844/jssp.2016.105.112

George, D., & Mallery, M. (2010). SPSS for windows step by step: a simple guide and reference (10th ed.) Pearson.

Gholami, L. (2015). Willigness to communicate and its relationship with emotional intelligence and gender differences. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 52, 87-94. https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILSHS.52.87

Hişmanoğlu, M., & Özüdoğru, F. (2017). An investigation of university students’ willigness to communicate in English in relation to some learner variables. Karabük Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7(2), 449-461. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/374276

Hofstede, G, Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind: Intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival (3rd ed). MCGraw-Hill.

Kang, S. J. (2005). Dynamic emergence of situational willingness to communicate in a second language, System, 33(2), 277-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2004.10.004

Karadağ, Ş., Kaya Ş. D., & Uludağ, A. (2016). İletişime gönüllülük ölçeği güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik çalışması. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 36, 101-109. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342109613_Iletisime_Gonulluluk_Olcegi_Guvenilirlik_Ve_Gecerlilik_Calismasi

MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clément, R., & Conrod, S. (2001). Willingness to communicate, social support, and language learning orientations of immersion students.

Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 369–388.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263101003035

MacIntyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes,

and affect as predictors of second language communication.

Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15,

-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X960151001

MacIntyre, P. D., & Doucette, J. (2010). Willingness to

communicate and action control. System, 38, 161-171.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.12.013

MacIntyre, P. D., Dörnyei, Z., Clément, R., & Noels, K. A.

(1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in

L2: a situational model of l2 confidence and affiliation.

The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545-562. https://

doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb05543.x

MacIntyre, P. D., & Gregersen, T. (2012). Affect: The role of

language anxiety and other emotions in language learning.

In Mercer, S., Ryan, S., & Williams, W. (Eds.), Psychology

for Language Learning (pp. 103-118). Palgrave

Macmillan.

MacIntyre, P. D. (2007). Willingness to communicate in

the second language: Understanding the decision to

speak as a volitional process. The Modern Language

Journal, 91(4), 564-576. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-

2007.00623.x

McCroskey, J. C. (1992). Reliability and validity of the willingness

to communicate scale. Communication Quarterly,

, 16-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463379209369817

McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, E. J. (1985). Willingness to

communicate: The construct and its measurement.

Paper presented at the annual meeting of the speech

communication association, Denver, CO, November

-10. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/

ED265604.pdf

McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1987). Willingness to

communicate. In J. C. McCroskey & J. A. Daly (Eds.),

Personality and interpersonal communication (pp. 129–

. Sage.

Öksüz Zerey, M., & Cephe, P. T. (2020). An investigation

into the relationship between willingness to communicate

and classroom environment in a Turkish EFL context.

Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 16(2),

-911. https://doi.org/10.17263/jlls.759338

Öz, H. (2014). Big five personality traits and willingness to

communicate among foreign language learners in Turkey.

Social Behavior and Personality, 42(9), 1473-1482.

https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2014.42.9.1473

Öz, H., Demirezen, M., & Pourfeiz, J. (2015). Willigness to

communicate of EFL learners in Turkish context. Learning

and Individual Differences, 37, 269-275. https://doi.

org/10.1016/j.lindif.2014.12.009

Özaslan, A. (2017). Sosyal zeka, kültürel zekâ, kaygı ve tutum

seviyeleri ile İngilizce iletişim kurma gönüllülüğü

arasındaki ilişki [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Erciyes

Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Kayseri.

Pattapong, K. (2015). Complex interactions of factors underlying

Thai EFL learners’ willingness to communicate

in English. PASAA: Journal of Language Teaching

and Learning in Thailand, 49, 105-136. Retrieved from

https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1077915.pdf

Peng, J. E. (2007). Willingness to communicate in the Chinese

EFL classroom: A cultural perspective. In J. Liu

(Ed.), English language teaching in China: New approaches,

perspectives, and standards (pp. 250-269).

Continuum.

Peng, J. E. (2012). Towards an ecological understanding

of willingness to communicate in EFL classrooms

in China. System, 40(2), 203-213. https://doi.

org/10.21832/9781783091560

Peters, E., Noreillie, A. S., Heylen, K., Bulté, B., &

Desmet, P. (2019). The impact of instruction and out-ofschool

exposure to foreign language input on learners’

vocabulary knowledge in two languages. A Journal of

Research in Language Studies, 69(3), 747-782. https://

doi.org/10.1111/lang.12351

Polatcan, F. (2018). Yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenenlerin

iletişim kurma istekliliklerinin incelenmesi [Unpublished

doctoral thesis]. Atatürk Üniversitesi Eğitim

Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Erzurum.

Riasati, M. J. (2012). EFL learners’ perception of factors

influencing willingness to speak English in language

classrooms: A qualitative study. World Applied Sciences

Journal, 17(10), 1287-1297. Retrieved from https://

www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj17(10)12/9.pdf

Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate

Statistics. Pearson.

Valadi, A., Rezaee, A., & Baharvand, P.G. (2015). The relationship

between language learners’ willingness to communicate

and their oral language proficiency with regard

to gender differences. International Journal of Applied

Linguistics and English Literature, 4(5), 147-153. http://

dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.4n.5p.147

Varışoğlu, M. C. (2020). Sudanlı öğrencilerin yabancı dil

olarak Türkçede iletişim isteklilikleri. Türkiyat Araştırmaları

Enstitüsü Dergisi, 68, 601-614. https://doi.

org/10.14222/Turkiyat4290

Yashima, T. (2002). Willigness to communicate in a second

language: The Japanese EFL context. The Modern

Language Journal, 86 (1), 54-66. https://doi.

org/10.1111/1540-4781.00136

Yayla, M. (2018). Yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenenlerde

ideal ikinci dil (d2) benliği ve iletişim kurma istekliliği

[Unpublished master’s thesis]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi,

Türkiyat Araştırmaları Enstitüsü, Ankara.

Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2021). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel

araştırma yöntemleri (12th ed.). Seçkin Yayıncılık




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.10n.4p.49

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.