EFL Learners’ Perceptions Regarding Peer-Collaboration and Communication in Face-to-Face and Online Classes

Mehmet Saraç, Mehmet Doğan


The study aims to reveal the perceptions of EFL learners regarding peer collaboration and communication in online and face-to-face classes. Online classes were already on the agenda of many educational institutions with the growing interest in utilising various digital platforms; however, with the COVID-19 epidemic, the process accelerated and offering online classes became an urgent necessity for schools and universities. This radical and sudden change presents both opportunities and challenges for universities and students. One of the challenges is fostering the foreign language literacy of the learners and pursuing effective communication and collaboration among students in online classes. The study adopted a qualitative research design with the aim of exploring the phenomenon from the inside out. The students in the participant group are actively learning English at a state university in hybrid education conditions. As the participating students are exposed to both face-to-face and online teaching practices simultaneously, they are expected to have the ability to compare the two types of instruction in terms of peer communication and collaboration. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to reveal the perceptions of the EFL learners, and the qualitative data were analysed by utilising the content analysis procedures. The analysis of the qualitative data revealed that the EFL learners found face-to-face classes more effective, and they credited the real classroom setting in that it creates more authentic and sincere communication opportunities for them. On the other hand, some opportunities created by the online classes were also stated by the participating students; in addition, some valuable suggestions were also offered by the participants for the improvement of online classes.


Online language education, Peer-communication, Perceptions, EFL

Full Text:



AbuSeileek, A. F., & Qatawneh, K. (2013). Effects of synchronous and asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) oral conversations on English language learners’ discourse functions. Computers & Education, 62, 181–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.013

Ammar, A., & Hassan, R. M. (2017). Talking It Through: Collaborative Dialogue and Second Language Learning. Language Learning, 68(1), 46–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12254

Baker, C., Nafukho, F., McCaleb, K., Becker, M., &

Johnson, M. (2015). The Tangible and Intangible Benefits of Offering Massive Open Online Courses: Faculty Perspectives. Internet Learning, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.18278/il.4.2.5

Baleghizadeh, S. (2010). The Impact of Peer Interaction on an Editing Activity in EFL Classes. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(5), 721–727. https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.1.5.721-727

Benigno, V., & Trentin, G. (2008). The evaluation of online courses. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 16(3), 259–270. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2729.2000.00137.x

Brallier, S., & McIlreavy, M. (2016). Does Method of Course Delivery Matter: A Comparison of Student Performance in Hybrid, Online, and Lecture-based Introductory Sociology Courses. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, 7(4), 2413–2417. https://doi.org/10.20533/licej.2040.2589.2016.0320

Cavanaugh, J., & Jacquemin, S. J. (2015). A Large Sample Comparison of Grade Based Student Learning Outcomes in Online vs. Face-to-Face Courses. Online Learning, 19(2), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v19i2.454

Cavanaugh, J. K. (2019). Are Online Courses Cannibalising Students From Existıng Courses? Online Learning, 9(3). https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v9i3.1781

Cole, A. W. (2016). Testing the Impact of Student Preference for Face-to-Face Communication on Online Course Satisfaction. Western Journal of Communication, 80(5), 619–637. https://doi.org/10.1080/10570314.2016.1186824

Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative (Vol. 7). Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ.

El-Dib, M. A. B. (2004). Language Learning Strategies in Kuwait: Links to Gender, Language Level, and Culture in a Hybrid Context. Foreign Language Annals, 37(1), 85–95. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2004.tb02176.x

Felix, A. (2020). Awareness of Students towards E-Learning in Education. Purakala Journal, 31(15), 620-626. DOI: http://purakala.com/index.php/0971-2143

Gillham, B. (2000). Case study research methods. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Hase, S. (2009). Heutagogy and e-learning in the workplace: Some challenges and opportunities, Journal of Applied Research in Workplace E-learning, 1(1), 43-52. DOI: 10.5043/impact.13

Kim, S. S. (2021). Motivators and concerns for real-time online classes: focused on the security and privacy issues. Interactive Learning Environments, 2(2)1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1863232

Koohang, A., Paliszkiewicz, J., Klein, D., & Horn Nord, J. (2016). The importance of active learning elements in the design of online courses. Online Journal of Applied Knowledge Management, 4(2), 17–28. https://doi.org/10.36965/ojakm.2016.4(2)17-28

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3rd ed.). Sage publications.

Murtiningsih, T. (2020). Utılızıng Online Learning to Enhance English Skills on Intensive English Class. International Journal of Educational Best Practices, 4(2), 48–59. https://doi.org/10.31258/ijebp.v4n2.p48-59

Packer-Muti, B. (2009). A Review of Corbin and Strauss’ Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. The Qualitative Report, 14(2), 140-143. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2009.2838

Padaguri, V. G., & Akram Pasha, S. (2021). Synchronous Online Learning versus Asynchronous Online Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Learning Effectiveness. SSRN Electronic Journal, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3878806

Phillips, L. T., Weisbuch, M., & Ambady, N. (2014). People perception: Social vision of groups and consequences for organizing and interacting. Research in Organizational Behavior, 34, 101-127.

Song, H., Kim, J., & Luo, W. (2016). Teacher–student relationship in online classes: A role of teacher self-disclosure. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 436–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.037

Steils, N., & Hanine, S. (2019). Recruiting valuable participants in online IDEA generation: The role of brief instructions. Journal of Business Research, 96, 14–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.10.038

Thamarana, S. (2016). Role of E-learning and Virtual Learning Environment in English language learning.4th Annual International Conference, ELTAI Tirupati, 61-62.

Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2011). The Effectiveness of Distance Education across Virginia’s Community Colleges: Evidence from Introductory College-Level Math and English Courses. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(3), 360–377. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373711413814

Yu, R. (2009). Interaction in EFL Classes. Asian Social Science, 4(4), 27-39. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v4n4p48

Zhao, Y., Lei, J., Lai, B. Y. C., & Tan, H. S. (2005). What Makes the Difference? A Practical Analysis of Research on the Effectiveness of Distance Education. Teachers College Record: The Voice of Scholarship in Education, 107(8), 1836–1884. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146810510700812

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.10n.3p.55


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.