The Effect of Psycho-Education Program Developed for Sexual Abuse on Counseling Teachers’ Reporting Sexual Abuse and Information and Risk Recognition Attitudes

Adem Peker, Serkan Cengiz, Aynur Karabacak Çelik


This study aimed to analyze the effect of the psycho-education program for sexual abuse on counseling teachers’ attitudes towards reporting sexual abuse and their knowledge and risk recognition levels. The research was by using the embedded design, one of the mixed method approaches. In the quantitative dimension of the studyquasiexperimental designwith pretest-posttest groups was performed, while in the qualitative dimension, the opinions of counselors were included. The study group of the research consisted of eight counselors in the experimental group and eight counselors in the control group, working in schools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education. A two-Factor ANOVA model for mixed measurements was utilized to analyze the experimental study. Paired t-test for dependent samples was used to analyze the pretest and posttest scores of the participants. Content analysis was used in the analysis of qualitative data. The quantitative findings of the study showed that the psycho-education program applied to the experimental group displayed a significant difference between the counseling teachers’ attitudes towards reporting sexual abuse and their knowledge and risk recognition levels compared to the control group. In the qualitative results of the study, it was observed that the counselors classified the characteristics of children at risk in terms of exposure to sexual abuse under the two themes of family factors and lack of social skills. In another result, it was discovered that children exposed to sexual abuse displayed behavioral and emotional symptoms. It is thought that the training that counselors will receive in schools on sexual abuse will be beneficial for the protection of the mental health of children and young people.


Child, Abuse, Counselors, Psycho-Education Program, Sexual abuse

Full Text:



Adamo, N.I. (2011). Recognizing and reporting child maltreatment in schools: A resource manual for teachers.

(Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Alliant International University, Shirley Mount Hufstedler School of Education, California, ABD.

Adams, J., Mrug, S., & Knight, D.C. (2018). Characteristics of child physical and sexual abuse as predictors of psychopathology. Child Abuse and Neglect, 86, 166-177,

Aksel, Ş. & Yılmaz Irmak, T. (2015). The knowledge and experiences of teachers on child sexual abuse. Ege University Education Journal, 2(16), 373-391,

Alaggia, R. (2010). An ecological analysis of child sexual abuse disclosure: considerations for child and adolescent mental health. Journal Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 32-39.

Alpaslan, A. (2014). Childhood sexual abuse. Afyon Kocatepe University Medical Journal, 15(2), 194-201

Armour, C., Elklit, A. & Christofferson, M.N. (2014). A latent class analysis of childhood maltreatment: identifying typologies. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 19, 23–39,

Aydos, E.H. (2019). Examining the effectiveness of the safe kids program. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Hacettepe University, Ankara.

Ayeş Aslan, E. & Çeli̇k, İ. (2020). Investigation of pre-school teachers’ awareness of child abuse. Akdeniz University Journal of Education, 3(1), 40-56.

Bahadır Yılmaz, E. (2013). Programs and features used to prevent child abuse. Anatolian Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences, 16(4), 255-259.

Bilge, Y.D., Taşar, M.A., Kılınçoğlu, B., Özmen, S., & Tıraş, Ü. (2013). The knowledge levels, experiences and discipline methods used by parents of lower socioeconomic levels about child abuse and neglect. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 14(1), 27-35,

Creswell, J. W., & Garrett, A. L. (2008). The movement of mixed methods research and the role of educators. South African Journal of Education, 28(3), 321–333,

Daspe, M.E., Vaillancourt-Morel, M.P., Lussier, Y., & Sabourin, S. (2018). Facebook use, Facebook jealousy, and intimate partner violence perpetration. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 21(9), 549-555,

Demi̇rci̇oğlu, H. & Işık, E . (2019). School-based programs developed to prevent child sexual abuse and their effectiveness. Hacettepe University Journal of Social Sciences, 1(1), 32-51.

Dereobalı, N., Karadağ, S. & Sönmez, S . (2013). Preschool education teachers’ views on child abuse, neglect, violence and the role of educators. Ege University Journal of Education, 14(1), 50-66.

Di̇lsi̇z, H. & Mağden, D. (2015). Determining teachers’ knowledge and risk recognition levels on child abuse and neglect. Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal, 1(2), 678-693.

Doğan, T. (2016). The role of school support and psychological counselors in preventing child neglect and abuse. II. International Child Protection Congress Ankara.

Doğan, T. & Bayar, Ö. (2018). Child sexual abuse: how much do future teachers and school counselors know? Journal of International Social Research, 11(55), 571-581,

Dündar, H. & Hareket, E. (2017). Examination of the trend research conducted in the context of children’s rights postgraduate thesis in Turkey. Manas Journal of Social Research, 6(1), 77-9,

Ekşi, H., Koç, S. & Türk, T. (2018). Turkish psychometric properties of the scale of teachers’ attitudes towards reporting child sexual abuse. International Education and Science Congress, Afyon,

Eren-Gümüş, A. (2016). The first meeting to be held with the child before reporting the suspected child sexual abuse. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 20, 45-48.

Glesne, C. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research. (çev. A. Ersoy, P. Yalçınoğlu). Anı Publishing: Ankara.

GullBritt, R., Barbro, R. & Karin C.R. (2013). Psychological distress among women who were sexually abused as children. International Journal of Social Welfare, 22(3), 269-278,

Gümüş, A.E. (2017). The first meeting to be held with the child before reporting the suspected child sexual abuse. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 20(1), 45-58.

Herman, J. (2011). Trauma and Recovery Consequences of Violence from Domestic Abuse to Political Terror. 2. İstanbul: Literatür Publishing.

Izdebska, A. (2020). Personality disorders in adult female child sexual abuse survivors: dimensions of personality pathology and characteristics of abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 1-30,

Jaberghaderi, N., Greenwald, R., Rubin, A., Zand, S.O. & Dolatabadi, S. (2004). A comparison of CBT and EMDR for sexually-abused Iranian girls. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11, 358-368,

Kara, Ö. (2010). Comparison of knowledge levels and approaches of pediatric residents, specialists and general practitioners working in Ankara on child abuse and neglect. Pediatric Health and Diseases Department Medical Specialty Thesis, Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara.

Kenny, M.C., & McEachern, A.G. (2008). Reporting suspected child abuse: A pilot comparison of middle and high school counselors and principals. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 11(2), 59-75,

Koca, M. (2011). Obligation to report child abuse. Journal of İnönü University Law Faculty, 3(1), 113-128.

Koçtürk, N. (2016). Individual and familial risk factors of adolescents exposed to repeated sexual abuse. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Hacettepe University, Ankara.

Kürklü, A. (2011). Teachers’ awareness levels of child abuse and neglect. Master’s thesis. Kocatepe University, Afyon,

Lahad, M., Farhi. M., Leykin, D. & Kaplansky, N. (2010). Preliminary study of a new integrative approach in treating post-traumatic stress disorder: See far CBT. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 37, 391-399,

Lambie, G. W. (2005). Child abuse and neglect: A practical guide for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 8(3), 249-258,

Leetch, A.N. & Woolridge, D. (2013). Emergency department evaluation of child abuse. Emergency Medicine Clinics on North America, 31(3), 853-873,

Mader, L. (2005). Men who abuse: Examining emotional literacy in men’s story. MS. Thesis, Acadia University.

Mendoza-Melendez, M.A., Cepeda, A., Frankeberger, J., Lopez-Macario, M., & Valdez, A. (2018). History of child sexual abuse among women consuming illicit substances in Mexico City. Journal of Substance Use, 23(5), 520-527.

Mitchell, M. W. (2010). Child sexual abuse: A school leadership issue. Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83(3), 101-104.

Müderrisoğlu, S., Dedeoğlu, C., Akço, S. & Akbulut, B. (2014). Domestic violence research for children aged 0-8 years old in Turkey.İstanbul: Bernard Van Leer Foundation Publications.

Musliner, K.L. & Singer, J.B. (2014). Emotional support and adult depression in survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(8), 1331–1340,

Orak, S. A. (2015). The effect of protective-based psychosocial interventions on mothers and children on children’s knowledge of protection from sexual abuse. (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Ataturk University, Erzurum.

Page, R.M. & Page, T.S. (2011). Promoting health and emotional well-being in your classroom. (5. Baskı). USA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Pala, B. (2011). The knowledge and awareness levels of future teachers about child abuse and neglect. (Family Medicine Department Medical Specialization Thesis). Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine, Eskişehir,

Paslı, F. (2017). Examination of sexually abused children in terms of ecological system approach. Gazi University Journal of Health Sciences, 2(2), 39-53

Pelendecioğlu, B. & Bulut, S. (2009). Domestic physical abuse of the child. Journal of Abant İzzet Baysal University, 9 (1), 1-7.

Pitts, C. (2015). Child sexual abuse prevention programs for pre-schoolers: A synthesis of current evidence, Sydney. Retrieved from

Savi̇ Çakar, F. & Yazıcı Okuyan, H. (2017). Teacher candidates’ views on child abuse and neglect. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Education Faculty, 44, 250-275,

Steiner, C.M. (2003). Emotional literacy: Intelligence with a heart. Fawnskin, C.A. Personhood Press.

Tugay, D. (2008). Teachers’ awareness levels of child abuse and neglect. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Marmara University Institute of Health Sciences, İstanbul.

Uçar, S., Yıldız, Y., Dursun-Bi̇lgi̇n, M. & Baştemur, Ş. (2020). A qualitative research on school counselors’ competencies to work with child abuse. Hacettepe University Journal of Education Faculty, 35(2), 404-414,

Ulukol, B. (2013). Child maltreatment (abuse and neglect). Ankara University: Faculty of Medicine, Department of Social Pediatrics, Ankara Child Protection Unit. İzmir,

Uşaklı, H. (2012). School help professionals ideas on child abuse and neglect. Journal of Educational Sciences & Psychology, 2(64), 115 – 124,

Van Der Kolk, B. A. (2018). Body records, brain, mind and body in the recovery of trauma. Ankara: Nobel Yaşam Publishing.

Veenema, T.G., Thornton, C.P. & Corley, A. (2015). The public health crisis of child sexual abuse in low and middle income countries: An integrative review of the literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(4), 864-881,

Walsh, K., Mathews, B., Rassafiani, M., Farrell, A. & Butler, D. (2012). Understanding teachers reporting of child sexual abuse: Measurement methods matter. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(9), 1937-1946,

Walsh, K., Zwi, K., Woolfenden, S. & Shlonsky, A. (2018). School-based education programs for the prevention of child sexual abuse: A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Research on Social Work Practice, 28(1), 33-55,

Wurtele, S.K. & Kenny, M.C. (2010). Partnering with parents to prevent childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse Review, 19(2), 130-152,

Yıldırım, H. & Şimşek, H. (2006). Qualitative research methods in the social sciences. Seçkin Publishing: Ankara.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.