Ethical Climate and Faculty’s Trifocal Functions of State Universities and Colleges (SUCS) in Region XII, Philippines

Leonel Peñaredondo-Untong


This study determined the prevailing ethical climate in State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) in Region XII and its relationship to the faculty’s three mandated functions; including instruction, research and extension. The descriptive method of research utilizing the correlation analysis was used in this study. This was conducted in four SUCs in Region XII, namely: Cotabato City State Polytechnic College in Cotabato City, Sultan Kudarat State University (ACCESS) in Tacurong City, University of Southern Mindanao in North Cotabato, and Cotabato Foundation of Science and Technology in North Cotabato. The respondents were the 268 selected faculty members taken through random sampling method. The researcher-made questionnaire was used to gather the data pertaining to the ethical climate and faculty’s trifocal functions. The findings generated: The prevailing ethical climate in professional values has the mean of 4.59 described as ”excellent”, work ethics is “excellent” with the mean of 4.79 and cultural values is also “excellent” with its mean of 4.52; the faculty productivity in instruction is “excellent” with its mean of 4.79, “poor” in research with the mean of 2.23 and “good” in extension with the mean of 3.06; The ethical climate in terms of professional ethics with.942 manifests very high positive relationship, work ethics with.897 denotes high positive relationship, and cultural values with.864 also show high positive relationship with faculty productivity in their trifocal functions. The study concluded that the ethical climate influenced the faculty productivity. The faculty professional ethics, work ethics and cultural values contributed significantly to the faculty productivity in their university trifocal functions.


Ethical Climate, Professional Values, Work Ethics, Cultural Values, Faculty’s Trifocal Functions, Instruction, Research and Extension

Full Text:



Amadie, A., Sori, L., & Imam, M. (2017). Surveying the relationship between Work Ethics and Employees’ Productivity. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 6(7a). Retrieved from>pdfs>KD_VOL_6_7>4.pdf

Aneidi, A.L. & Effiom, D.O. (2011). Research Mandate of the University: An Assessment of Junior Academic Staff Participation. Journal of Education and Sociology, 4(2).

Bako, S. (2005). Universities, Research and Development in Nigeria: Time for a Paradigmatic Shift. Paper prepared for 11th General Assembly of CODESRIA on Rethinking African Development beyond Impasse: Towards Alternatives. Maputo, Mozambique. Retrieved from>IMG>pdf>bako

Bullock M, & Panicker S. (2003). Ethics for all: differences across scientific society codes. Science and Engineering Ethics, 9(2):159-170. DOI: 10.1007/s11948-003-0003-3

Castano, M. C. N., & Cabanda, E. (2007). Sources of Efficiency and Productivity Growth in the Philippine State Universities and Colleges: A Non-Parametric Approach. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 6(6). Retrieved from

Cohen, J., Pant, L. & Sharp, D. (1993). A Validation and Extension of a Multidimensional Ethics Scale. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(1), 13-26. Retrieved from>content>pdf

Cuenca, J.S. (2011). Efficiency of State Universities and Colleges in the Philippines: A Data Envelopment Analysis. Discussion paper Series No. 2011-14. Philippine Institute for Development Studies.

Fritzsche, D. J. (2000). Ethical Climates and the Ethical Dimension of Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics. March 2000. Volume 24, Issues 2 pp. 125-140. Retrieved from

Gbadamosi, G. (2004). Academic ethics: What has morality, culture and administration got to do with its measurement?. Management Decision, 42(9). DOI: 1145-1161. 10.1108/00251740410565172

Martin, J. I., & Meezan, W. (2003). Applying ethical standards to research and evaluations involving lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services: Issues in Practice, Policy & Research, 15(1-2), 181–201.

Mason, B.J., Bearden, W.O. & Richardson, L.D. (1990). Perceived Conduct and Professional Ethics among Marketing Faculty. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 18, 185-197. Retrieved from journals.sagepub,com/doi/abs/10.1177/009207039001800301?journalCode=jama

Rosenblatt, Z. & Peled, D. (2002). School ethical climate and parental involvement. Journal of Educational Administration, 40(4), 349-367. Retrieved from

Salmi, J. (2009). The Challenge of Establishing World-Class Universities. Retrieved from


Subong, P. Jr E. & Beldia, M.D. (2005). Statistics for Research. Manila, Philippines: Rex Bookstore.

Thompson, K. R. (2007). A Corporate Training View of Ethics Education: An Interview with Dov L. Seidman, CEO of LRN. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.