Students' Attitudes and Perceptions of Reading through Analysis of Their Paintings

Zekerya Batur, Halil Ziya Özcan


This study investigated the attitudes and perceptions of 5th grade students in terms of reading. The study group consists of 10 participants, 6 girls and 4 boys, attending the 5th grade of a public school. This research is a qualitative study with a descriptive phenomenology design. As a data collection tool, the students' drawings and face to face interviews with the students were used. At the stage of collecting the data, the students were asked the question “Can you draw a picture that reflects your thinking about reading?” Afterwards, face-to-face interviews were made to explain their drawings. The students' attitudes and perceptions about reading were examined through paintings and face-to-face interviews. A total of 3 different themes were created. It is seen that “Dream World” theme is the most drawn with 4 paintings among these themes. According to the results obtained, it is seen that all the students in the study group have a positive perception towards reading.


Reading, perception, painting, visual reading

Full Text:



Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality, and behaviour, (2nd ed.), Open University Press, Milton-Keynes, England.

Akbaba, N. (2007). An experimental study on the contribution of visual tools to the teaching of grammar in the second level of primary education (Unpublished master’s thesis). Gazi University, Institution of Education Science, Ankara.

Akbulut, S, Özdemir, E,E & Cıvğın, H. (2017). Metaphoric Perceptions of Secondary School Students on Book and Reading Concepts. Turkish Journal of Primary Education, 2, 30-43.

Akkaya, N & Özdemir, S. (2013). Examination of the Attitudes of Secondary School Students towards Reading: The Case of İzmir-Buca. Bartın University Education Faculty Journal, 1, 75-96.

Akyol, H. (2005). First Reading and Writing Teaching in Turkish Language (4th ed.). Ankara: Pegem A Yayıncılık.

Alpay, M. (1991). Library: The bridge connecting yesterday to tomorrow. Istanbul: Turkish Library Association.

Artut, K. (2002). Art education theories and methods. Ankara: Anı Publishing. (Turkish)

Atasoy, B. Kadayıfçı, H., & Akkuş, H. (2007). Exposing the Creative Thoughts of Students from their Drawings and Descriptions (Creative Thoughts Through Drawings and Explanations). Turkish Educational Science Journal, 5(4), 679-700.

Aydın, B. (2008). Inspector image in terms of elementary students. Journal of Contemporary Education, 33, (353), 21-27.

Aytaş, G. (2003). The Role of Children's Literature in Reading Development. Journal of Turkology Research, 13, 155-160.

Ayvalı, A. (1997). Examination of the parents' drawings of girls and boys growing in the institution along with their 7-11 age group in terms of emotional developmental level (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hacettepe University, Health Sciences Institute, Ankara.

Avcı, A. (2008). The relationship between primary school teachers' perceptions towards science teacher and their own self-efficacy beliefs (Unpublished master’s thesis). Ege University, Social Science Institute, İzmir.

Baker, C. (1992). Attitudes and language, Volume 83 of Multilingual Matters, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon.

Bamberger, R. (1990). Improving Reading Habits. (Trans. by Bengü Çapar). Ankara: Ministry of Culture.

Baş, T. & Akturan, U. (2008). Qualitative Research Methods. Ankara: Seçkin Publishing (Turkish)

Batur, Z. Gülveren, H., & Bek, H. (2010). A Research on the Reading Habits of Prospective Teachers: The Case of Uşak Education Faculty, Usak University, Journal of Institute of Social Sciences, 3, 32-49.

Bektaş, M, Okur, A & Karadağ, B. (2014). Metaphorical Perceptions in Primary and Secondary School Students. Turkish Journal of Librarianship, 28, 154-168.

Belet, Y & Türkkan, B. (2007). Expression and observation expressions of primary school students in written expression and pictorial expressions (The Europan Union Sample). National Primary School Education Symposium (pp. 270-278). Ankara: Nobel Publishing.

Bezci, S. M. (1986). Depth relationship between 4-10 year-old children's drawings: Partial Hiding (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hacettepe University, Social Sciences Institute, Ankara.

Bınarbaşı, F. (2006). Studying of university students' reading habits (Unpublished master’s thesis). Selçuk University, Social Sciences Institute, Konya.

Bircan, E. & Uzuner Yurt, S. (2016). Relationship between secondary school students' reading attitudes and self-efficacy self-efficacy. Journal of Academic Studies, 67(17), 201-215.

Burhan, Y. (2008). Development and application of cartoon supported worksheets for acid and base concepts (Unpublished master’s thesis) Karadeniz Tecnical University, Science Institute, Trabzon.

Çakır, B. (2017). The relationship between perceived parental attitudes and anxiety levels of family picture drawings of children with diagnosis of Dehb (Unpublished master’s thesis). Işık University, Social Sciences Institute, İstanbul.

Çelik, Y. F. (2018). The relationship between the drawings of 9-12 age group children and depression, anxiety and self-esteem variables (Unpublished master’s thesis). Işık University, Social Sciences Institute, İstanbul.

Coşkun, E. (2002). Evaluation of High School Speed Reading Techniques Curriculum and Practices. Education Searches, 9, 41-51.

Coşkun, S. A. (2009). The effect of cartoon usage on success, motivation and attitudes in science teaching ( Unpublished master’s thesis) Süleyman Demirel University, Sicence Institute, Burdur.

Christensen, P. & James, A. (2008). Introduction: Researching children and childhood cultures of communication. In P. Christensen & A. James (eds.), Research with children: Perspectives and practices (pp. 1–9), London: Routledge Flamer.

Christensen, L. B., Johnson, R. B. & Turner, L. A. (2015). Research methods: pattern and analysis (Trans by Ahmet Aypay). Ankara: Anı Publishing.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research. Boston: Pearson.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among the Five Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.

Demirel, Ö. (1990). Foreign Language Teaching: principles, methods, techniques. Ankara: Usem Publishing.

Devrimci, H. (1993). The study of reading habits in elementary school 5th grade children (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hacettepe University, Health Sciences Institute, Ankara.

Eagly, A. H. & Chaiken, S. (2007). The advantages of an inclusive definition of attitude, Social Cognition,25(5),582–602.

Erişti, S. D. (2010). Popular culture perception in primary school students' pictorial expressions (Example of Norwegian Multicultural Fjell Elementary School). Elementary Education Online, 9(3), 884-897.

Erdoğan, G.D. & Demir, E.Y. (2016). Investigation of Attitudes Towards Reading in Primary School 4th Grade Students in terms of Different Variables. Sakarya University, Education Faculty Journal, 32, 85-96.

Ergün, A. & Balçın, M. (2018). Determination of engineer perceptions of secondary school students by drawing technique. International Science and Education Congress 2018 (UBEK2018) Summary Book, p. 342.

Erişti, S. D. & Belet, Ş. D. (2010). Perception of culture in primary school students' written expression and paintings. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 9(33), 245-264.

Ersoy, A. & Türkkan, B. (2009). Perception of internet in primary school students' paintings . Primary Online, 8(1), 57-73.

Eyceyurt Türk, G., Akkuş, H., & Tüzün, Ü. (2013). Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Images about Dissolution. Journal of Erzincan University Faculty of Education, 16 , 65-84.

Freire, P. & Macedo, D. (1998). Literacy - Reading the World and the Words (Trans by Serap Ayhan,). Ankara: İmge Bookstore.

Golomb, C. (2004). The child’s creation of a pictorial world. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Göktürk, A. (1997). The Reading. Istanbul: Yapı Kredi Publishing.

Gönen, M., Öncü, E. & Işıtan, S. (2004). An Investigation of Reading Habits of 5th, 6th, and 7th Grade Students. Journal of National Education, 164, 7-34.

Gül, V. (2008). Effectiveness of leisure activities on reading comprehension and attitudes towards reading (Unpublished master’s thesis). Dokuz Eylül University, Institute of Educational Sciences, İzmir.

Güven, G. ( 2009). Evaluation of human and family drawings of preschool children (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation) Marmara University, Institute of Educational Sciences, İstanbul.

Hague, E. (2001). Nationalty and childrens’ drawings – pictures ‘about Scotland’ by primary school children in Edinburg, Scotland and Syracuse, New York State. Scottish Geographical Journal, 117(2), 77-99.

Herdem, K., Aygün, H., & Çinici, A. (2014). Examination of Eighth Grade Students' Technology Perceptions Through Cartoons. Journal of Amasya University Faculty of Education, 3(2), 232-258.

İlgar, L. İlgar, Ş. & Topaç, N. ( 2015). Examining the opinions and attitudes of preschool teacher candidates on reading habits in terms of various variables. Journal of Educational Sciences, 41, 99-116.

Kanmaz, A. (2012). The effect of reading comprehension strategy on reading comprehension skills, cognitive awareness, reading attitudes and persistence (Unpublished master’s thesis). Adnan Menderes University, Institute of Social Sciences, Aydın.

Kaynal, N. (1995). Examination of human figure drawings of mentally handicapped, hearing impaired and children with Cerebral Palsy in 6-12 age group (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hacettepe University, Institute of Health Sciences, Ankara.

Keleş, B, A. ( 2013). Reading habits and attitudes towards reading of twelfth-year students who are included in the international baccalaureate diploma program in Ankara Province (Unpublished master’s thesis). Bilkent University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara.

Korkmaz, H. & Kavak, G. (2010). Images of Elementary School Students towards Science. Primary Journal, 9, 1055-1079.

Kendrick, M. & McKay, R. (2002). Uncovering Literacy Narratives through Children's Drawings. Canadian Journal of Education / Revue Canadienne De L'éducation, 27(1), 45-60.

Kendrick, M. & McKay, R. (2004). Drawings as an alternative way of understanding young children’s constructions of literacy, Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 4(1), 109–128.

Kırışoğlu, O. (2002). Studying, learning, creating in art. Ankara: Pegem A Publishing.

Leonard, M. (2006). Children’s drawings as a methodological tool: Reflections on the eleven plus system in Northern Ireland. Irish Journal of Sociology, 15(2), 52-66.

Moodley, V. ( 2003). Language attitudes and code-switching behaviours of facilitators and learners in LLC senior phase OBE classrooms (PhD thesis), University of Natal, Durban.

Maden, S. & Maden, A. (2016). Attitudes of secondary school students towards screen reading. International Journal of Turkish Literature Culture Education, 5, 1305-1319.

Malchiodi, C. A. ( 1998) Understanding children’s drawings, New York: The Guilford Press.

Malchiodi, C. A. (2005). Understanding the pictures of children. (Trans by Yurtbay, T.). Istanbul: Epsilon Publishing.

Marshall, C. & Rossman, G. B. (2010). Designing Qualitative Research (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Melanlıoğlu, D. (2015). Pictures of secondary school students' perceptions of Turkish lessons. Journal of Literacy Education Research, 3, 27-38.

Miyandoab, H. S. (2008). Comparison and analysis of family picture drawings of 7-13 age group children with mentally retarded siblings. (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Hacettepe University, Institute of Health Sciences, Ankara.

Murris, K.S & Thompson, R.( 2016) ‘Drawings as imaginative expressions of philosophical ideas in a Grade 2 South African literacy classroom’, Reading & Writing, 7(2), 1-11

Nkomo, S.A., (2018). Grade 3 learners’ imagined identities as readers revealed through their drawings. Reading & Writing 9, 1-9.

Ormancı, Ü. & Balım, A. (2014). Secondary School Students' Ideas about Matter Subject: Drawing Method. Primary Online, 13, 827- 846

Özalp, I. (2006). Analysis of Environmental Problems Reflected in Children's Paintings According to Socioeconomic Differences (Unpublished master’s thesis). Celal Bayar University, Science Institute, Manisa.

Pehlivan, H. (2008). Mythological drawings from Turkish elementary school children. Elementary Education Online, 7(1), 150-156. [Online]: http://ilköğ

Picker, S. H. & Berry, J. S. (2000). Investigating pupils’ images of mathematicians, Educational Studies in Mathematics, 43, 69-94.

Özdemir, E. (1990). The Reading Art. Istanbul: Remzi Bookstore.

Rijey, J. & Van Rooy, W. (2007). Perceptions about health in primary school children. Teaching Science, 53(4), 32-35.

Platt, P. (1977). Grapho-Linguistics: Children's Drawings in Relation to Reading and Writing Skills. The Reading Teacher, 31(3), 262-268

Polat, F. (1996). Examination of gender differences in pregnant mother's drawings of 6-11 age group children (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hacettepe University, Institute of Health Sciences, Ankara.

Sadık, F., Çakan, H., & Artut, K. (2011). Çocuk Resimlerine Yansıyan Çevre Sorunlarının Sosyo ekonomik Farklılıklara Göre Analizi. İlköğretim Online, 1066-1080.

Sart, G. (2015). Qualitative research methods, techniques, analysis and approaches. (Ed: Fatma Nevra Seggie ve Yasemin Bayyurt). Ankara: Anı Publishing.

Townsend, R. (2002). Reading Richness. (Trans by Tayfur Keskin), Istanbul: Sistem Publishing.

Solmaz, F. (2016). Comparison of the perception and problems of children with special needs with the pictures they draw (Unpublished master’s thesis). Nisantası University, Institute of Social Sciences, İstanbul.

Sönmez, A. (2014). Examination of toy preferences and color perceptions of primary school students in institutions affiliated to the Ministry of Family and Social Policies (Unpublished master’s thesis). Gazi University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara.

Stokrocki, M & Samoraj, M. (2002). An ethnographic exploration of children’s drawings of their first communion in Poland. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 3(6), 1-16 [Online]:

Şansal, S. (2014). Examination of family relations of children's drawings of animals (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hacettepe University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara.

Şen, D. (2005). Examination of the effects of hospitalization in children by drawing a projective method (Unpublished master’s thesis). Ege University, Institute of Health Sciences, İzmir.

Ünal, E. (2003). Student’ perceptions of knowing and loving mathematics as reflected from their drawings (Unpublished master’s thesis). Boğaziçi University, İstanbul.

Tarancı, Y.G. ( 1999). Comparison of family drawings of girls and boys attending private and public primary schools in terms of socio-cultural variables of 10-11 age group (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hacettepe University, Institute of Health Sciences, Ankara.

The Turkish Language Society (

Tokiz, A. (2013). Evaluation of Conceptual Understanding Levels of Force and Movement of 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Students in Primary Education by Using Concept Cartoons, Concept Maps, Drawings and Interviews (Unpublished master’s theis). Celal Bayar University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Manisa.

Toomela, A. (2006). Generic represantations in children’s drawings. TRAMES, 10(4), 341-354.

Türkcan, B & Yaşar, Ş. (2011). The role of visual culture studies in elementary school students. Educational Sciences in Theory and Practice, 11 (3), p.1549-1570.

Türkkan, B. (2004). Evaluating the pictures of preschool children in terms of clues about family life. International Preschool Education Congress, (pp. 79-97). Istanbul: YA-PA Publishing.

Türkoğuz, S., Balım, A. G. & Çeliker, H. D. (2014). The details of drawing and animation of the students following the black box experiment in science teaching. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Faculty of Education Journal, 31, 149 – 169.

Yalçın, M. & Erginer, A. (2014). Primary school students' perceptions of school headmasters. Education and Science, 39(171), 270-285.

Yalman, M, Özkan, E & Kutluca, T. (2013). A Descriptive Research on Book Reading Habits of Faculty of Education: The Case of Dicle University. Journal of Information World, 14, 291-305.

Yaman, H & Dağtaş, A. (2013). Effect of reading on screen. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 9, 314-333.

Yıldırım, A. & Şimşek, H. (2005). Qualitative research methods in the social sciences. Ankara: Seçkin Publishing.

Yıldırım, N. & Uğur, M. (2011). Cartoon expressions of school headmaster images from students' perceptions. Journal of Kastamonu Education Faculty, 19(2), 409-426.

Yıldız, A.Ö. (2016). The evaluation of archaic symbols found in hallucinations / dreams of people who are diagnosed with schizophrenia and not taking them in terms of family structures. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Uskudar University, Institute of Social Sciences, İstanbul.

Yılmaz, H. ( 1995). Developmental examination of the effect of drawing order and drawing detail on head / body ratio in human picture drawings. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hacettepe University, Institute of Social Sciences, Ankara.

Yılmaz, G. (2009). Examination of family picture drawings, behavioral problems and functional characteristics of families in children aged 6-12 years who are sexually abused and not subjected. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hacettepe University, Institute of Health Sciences, Ankara.

Yörek, N. (2007). Determination of Conceptual Understanding of Cells in 9th and 11th Grade Students Through Student Drawings. Dokuz Eylül University Journal of Buca Education Faculty, 22, 107-114.

Yüce, Z., Önel, A., & Bekis, E.S. (2016). Determination of Conceptual Knowledge Levels of Secondary School Students on Cells Through Student Drawings. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education,12(2), 616-625.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.