Avoidance and Overuse of Indonesian Language among Balinese Children

Wayan Pageyasa


The use of Indonesian language by children who speak the Balinese language, especially for children who live in rural areas is quite difficult. This is because their Balinese language is much different from Indonesian language. If they speak Indonesian language, they have to fall back to the language first. That is, language transfer process will take place from Balinese language to Indonesian language. This research aims to describe two phenomena of the language transfer process, namely avoidance and overuse (excessive use). Qualitative data were obtained from one Balinese child, namely Gede. Gede’s daily conversations were recorded to be analyzed. The researcher also used field notes. The results show that there is indeed avoidance and overuse in the use of Indonesian language by Gede.  The teachers must be aware of the student's avoidance and overuse of Indonesian language, then the teacher can choose a contextual teaching method that best fits their students’ need in order to enable them to cope with the avoidance and overuse in learning the second language. In conclusion, the Balinese child’s avoidance and overuse, displayed in his use of Indonesian Language, is a concequence of his prior knowledge of his first language (L1) as well as his cultural awareness.  Teachers should facilitate their students’ second language (L2) learning by being aware of their L1 prior knowledge and culture.


avoidance, overuse, Indonesian language, Balinese children, Balinese mother tongue

Full Text:



Benešová, E. (2013). Treatment of Error in Developing Speaking Skills. Retrieved on June 21, 2017 from: https://goo.gl/mKJCF6

Brahim, T. K. (1995). Second Language Acquisition. Jakarta: Depdikbud

Bright, J. & McGregor, G. (1970).Teaching English as a Second Language: Theory and Techniques for the Secondary Stage. London: Longman.

Brooks, N. (1960). Language and Language Learning. Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.; ALM edition.

Brown, D. (1980). Principles of Learning a Second Language. Pearson Education

Chaer, A. & Agustina, L. (2009). Psikolinguistik: Kajian teoretik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Clark, E. V. (2003). First language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dawud (2002). Perkembangan dan keterhubungan filsafat, psikologi, linguistik danpembelajaran bahasa. Materi Prapas-casarjana Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Indonesia tahun 2002. Universitas Negeri Malang (June 18, 2017).

Dulay, H., & Burt, M. (1977). Remarks on Creativity in Language Acquisition. In M. Burt, H. Dulay & M. Finnochiaro (Eds.), Viewpoints on English as a Second Language (pp. 95-126). New York: Regents Ellis, R. (1986). The study of second language acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (1986). Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dewantara, I.P.M. Analisis bandingan bahasa bali - bahasa indonesia. [Online] Available: https://www.academia.edu/5714570/Analisis_Bandingan_Bahasa_Bali-Bahasa_Indonesia_Oleh_I_Putu_Mas_Dewantara(January 28, 2016)

James, C. (1980). Contrastive Analysis. Harlow Essex: Longman Group Ltd.

Krashen, S. (1983). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Lightbown, P. M. & Spada, N. (2013). How languages are learned? (4th Edition). Oxford: OUP.

Naska, I. (2017). Analisis Kontrastif Dan Analisis Kesalahan Dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab. Fakultas Agama Islam Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Barat, Indonesia. [Online] Available: https://www.academia.edu/8817441/ANALISIS_KONTRASTIF_DAN_ANALISIS_KESALAHAN_DALAM_PEMBELAJARAN_BAHASA_ARAB (July 8, 2017)

Rahayu, A. C. (2012). Teori Transfer dan Teori Interferensi dalam Pemerolehan Bahasa Kedua Atau Bahasa Target. [Online] Available http://jurnal.untag-sby.ac.id/index.php/parafrasa/article/view/210/181 . (June 18, 2017)

Schutz, R. (2017). Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition (Last Version). [Online] Available http://www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html. (July 16, 2017)

Suarta, D.G.A, Baruadi, M.K., & Umar F. AR. (tt). Interferensi morfologi bahasa bali terhadap bahasa indonesia lisan oleh teman sebaya di kecamatan toili barat. [Online] Available http://kim.ung.ac.id/index.php/KIMFSB/article/viewFile/3218/3194 . (January 28,2016).

Susanto. H. (2016). Analisis Kontrastif. Online] Available https://bagawanabiyasa.wordpress.com/2016/08/14/analisis-kontrastif/ . (June 18, 2017)

Tolla, A. (1990). Tiga Pandangan dalam Pemerolehan Bahasa: Skinner, Chomsky, dan Krashen. Dalam Nurhadi dan Roekhan (Eds), Dimensi-dimensi dalam belajar bahasa kedua (hlm.11-13). Bandung: Sinar Baru.

Yunita, L. S. (2012). Transfer Negatif Pemerolehan Bahasa Indonesia Anak Usia 8 Tahun Yang Berbahasa Ibu Bahasa Jawa. Jurnal Inspirasi Pendidikan Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.5n.4p.32


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.