Causes of Grade Nine Students’ Grade Retention in General Secondary Schools of Dabat Woreda in North Gondar, Ethiopia

Nahom Eyasu

Abstract


One of the great problems of Ethiopia for the educational arena is retention. Averagely 8.07% of each year of the secondary education students is repeated due to lack of achievement in this country. The percentage of retention in a country shows what proportion of students is regularly repeated in the same grade and who are, therefore, committing different crimes and misbehaved behaviors. Grade retention predicts many negative student outcomes: the frustration and humiliation associated with repeating the curriculum, combined with one’s physical size, may result in an increase in aggression and oppositional behavior. The main purpose of this study was to investigate some of the causes that contribute to grade nine students’ grade retention in general secondary schools of Dabat district. It has attempted to identify the major factors under two headings: in-school and out-of-school factors to present separate area of intervention. In order to attain the objectives, the study was carried out in two general secondary schools which were selected using comprehensive sampling techniques. The study involved 264(M=106 & F=158) grade repeaters and 44 teachers and 2 principals. The data gathered were analyzed using percentage, mean, Spearmen rank order correlation coefficient and t-test. Based on the result of the analysis, among the in-school factors, the highest percentages were observed for difficulty of language of instruction, students’ failure to study hard, poor quality of teaching, lack of guidance and counseling and frequent absenteeism of students were in-school related. On the other hand, low level of family income, parent (pupils) health problem, lack of parents support and child labor were identified as the major out-of-school causes for grade retention in grade nine secondary schools. It was also found out that the combined effect of both in-school and out-of-school factors was important in explaining students’ grade retentions in the secondary schools of the district. The incidence of the problem is relatively higher among girls than among boys.

 


Keywords


In-school Causes, Out-of-school Causes, Grade nine, Retention, Secondary school students, Ethiopia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson, R. (1969). “Pupils Progress. In Ebel, R(Ed).” Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 4th ed. Toron to Ma Millian

Anderson, G. E., Jimerson, S. R., and Whipple, A. D. (2005). Student Ratings of Stressful Experiences at Home and School: Loss of a Parent and Grade Retention as Superlative Stressors. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 21, 1–20.

Arends, R. I. (1994). Learning to Teach. New York Mc Grawhill companies Inc.

Assefa, B. (1991). Female Participation and Performance in Rural Primary Schools in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa UNICEF/SIDA.

Bandura, A. and Walters, R. (1963). Social Learning and Personality Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Bernard, H. R. (2000). Social Research Methods. International Educational and Professional Publisher. Sage Publishing, Inc.

Blair, C. (2002). School Readiness: Integrating Cognition and Emotion in a Neurobiological Conceptualization of Children’s Functioning at School Entry. American Psychologist, 57, 111–127.

Brimer M.A. and Pauli, L. (1971). Wastage in Education a World Problems. Paris. UNESCO.

Brodbelt, S. (1987). Absenteeism: Critical Problem in Learning. Journal of Disabilities. 19(8).

Brophy, J. (1983). Research on the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Teacher Expectations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 631–661

Brown, G. (1991). Education in the Developing World: Conflict and Crisis. London LONGMAN.

Bustillo, I. (1993). Latin America and the Caribbean in Enn King and M.A. A Hill Women’s Education in Developing Countries, Barriers, Benefits and Policies. Baltmore the Jhon Hopkins University press.

Carron G. and Chan, T.G. (1996). The Quality of Primary Schools in Different Development Contexts. Paris UNESCO.

Cole. 1997. Promoting Equality in Primary Schools: Lendon Daverlill and Saaran Jeha.

Cooksey, B. (1992). Education and Sexual Inequalities in Cameroon. Journal of Modern African Students. 20, 167-177.

Dereje, T. and Dresse, M. (1997). Violence in schools: A Study of Some Schools in Addis Ababa. Global Issue and Intervention. Press UNESCO.

Eisemon T.O. (1997). Reducing Repetition: Issue and Strategies. Paris UNESCO.

Fasil R. K. (1990). Implementing Education Policies in Ethiopia. The World Bank, Washington, D.C. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Festinger, L. A. (1954). A Theory of Social Comparison Processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–140.

Fine, M. (1987). Why Urban Adolescents Drop in to and Out of Public High School? In G.N, Natriello (Ed). School Dropouts, Patterns and Policies (pp.89-105). New York Teachers College.

Fuller, B. (1986). Raising School Quality in Developing Countries. What investment boost learning? Washington D.C World Bank.

Fuller, B. (1987). What Factors Raise Achieving Third World. Review of Educational Research, 57 (3).

Garman, C.G, and Brown, W.K. (1989). Truancy, Chronic Absenteeism and Dropping out. New York: William Gladden foundation.

Genet, Z. (1998). Women in Education: A Study of the Academic Performance and Participation of Female Students in the High Schools of Addis Ababa Region. FALMBEAU, 6(1).

Good, J., and Brophy, J.E. (1986). School Effects. In M.C. Wittrock. Handbook of Research on Teaching (3rd ed). New York: Maemylon.

Good, T. and Brophy, J.E. (1992). Educational Psychology. A Realistic Approach (5th ed): London. Longman Publishing Company.

Haddad, W.D. (1979). Education and Economic Effects on Promotion and Repetition Practicing. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 519 Washington D.C World Bank.

Hamblin, D. (1983). Guidance: 16-19 Age Group London Brass Bank Well.

Hirschi, T. (1969). Social Control Theory. Sage Publishing, Inc.

Hussen, E. (2000). Is Grade Retention Desirable? Educational Journal. 4(8). 31-43, MOE.

Hyde, K. (1989). Improving Women’s Education in Sub Saharan African. A Review of Literature Washington D.C. World Bank

Jimerson, S., Egeland, B., Sroufe, L., and Carlson, B. (2000). A Prospective Longitudinal Study of High School Dropouts: Examining Multiple Predictors across Development. Journal of School Psychology, 38, 525-549.

Jimerson, S. R. and Kaufman, A. M. (2003). Reading, Writing, and Retention. A Primer of Grade Retention Research. The Reading Teacher Journal, 56(7), 622-635

Jimerson, S.R. Whipple, A.D and Anderson. G.E. (2002). Grade Retention, Achievement and Mental Health Outcomes. Betheda, MD. National Association of Psychologists.

King, E.M. and Hell, M.A. (1993). Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits and Policies, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Levy, M. B. (1971). Determinants of primary school dropouts in developing countries. Comparative Education Review, 15(1), 44-58.

Lopez, J., Maoulidi, M. (2009). The Cost of Grade Retention. Forthcoming: Review of Economics and Statistics. Discussion Paper for Educational Needs Assessment for Mekelle City, Ethiopia.

Maglad, N.E.A. (1994). School Supply, Family Background and Gender Specific School Enrollment and Attainment in Sudan. East Africa Social Science Research Review, 10(2)

Maxwell, W.H. 1904. Sixth Annual Report of the Super Intendment of School. New York City Board of Education.

Mayer, D. P., Mullens, J. E., & Moore, M. T. (2001). Monitoring School Quality: An Indicators Report. Education Statistics Quarterly, 3(1), 38-44. McCoy, A. R., and Reynolds, A. J. (1999). Grade Retention and School Performance: An Extended Investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 37, 273–298.Merga, F. (1999). Factors that Contribute to Female Students Grade Repetition in Secondary Schools of Jimma Zone.

Miske, S. J., and Dowd, A. J. (1998). Teaching and learning in Mangochi classrooms: Combining quantitative and qualitative information to study twelve primary schools in Malawi. Creative Associates International. Washington D.C

MOE (1994). Education and Training Policy. Addis Ababa.

MOE (1998). What Factor Shape Girls School Performance Addis Ababa. (Unpublished Research Report).

MOE (1998/99). Indicators of the Ethiopian Education System. Addis Ababa

Mulualem, A. (2011). The Impact of Student Dropout up on the Attainment of UPE Program in West Gojjam. Unpublished Master Thesis, Bahirdar University Library.

Nailing, X. and Sheila, N. K. (2009). Retaining Students in Grade. A Literature Review of the Effects of Retention on Students’ Academic and Nonacademic Outcomes. Rand Corporation.

National Association of School Psychologists. (1989). Grade Retention and Social Promotion: Position Statement.

Owings, W.A and Magliarols. (1998). Grade Retention: A History of Failure. Educational Leadership, 56, 86-88.

Pagani, L., Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., Boulerice, B., and McDuff, P. (2001). Effects of Grade Retention on Academic Performance and Behavioral Development. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 297–315.

Pianta, R. C., Tietbohl, P. J., and Bennett, E. M. (1997). Differences in Social Adjustment and Classroom Behavior between Children Retained in Kindergarten and Groups of Age and Grade Matched Peers. Early Education and Development, 8, 137–152.

Potter, L. (1999). Examining the Negative Effects of Retention in our School. Educational Journal, 117(2), 268-271.

Reynolds, A. J. (1992). Grade Retention and School Adjustment: An Explanatory Analysis. Education Environment and Policy Analysis, 14(2), 101-121.

Robinson D.N. (2000). Teaching: Trends in research In N.J. Smelser, and P.B., Baltes. (Eds). International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences. UK: Cambridge university press. 23, 15483-15487.

Roderic, M. (1994). Grade Retention and School Dropout: Investigating the association. American Educational Journal, 3 (479-759).

Rose, P., Yoseph, G., Berihun, A., and Nuresu, T. (1997). Gender and Primary Schooling in Ethiopia. Brighten IDS.

Schiefeldbein. E., and Farrell, J. (1973). Factors influencing academic performance among Chilean primary students. Santiago: Centro de investigaciones y Desarrollo de la Education. Century World Bank Discussion on Paper No 257, Washington D.C. World Bank.

Setencich, J. 1994. The Impact of Early Grade Retention on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of Seventh and Eighth Grade Students (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED393026 p.1-11).

Setu, A. (2002). Internal Efficiency of Primary Schools in the Amhara National Regional State (Unpublished thesis). AAU.

Shepard, L., and Smith, M. L. (1990). Synthesis of Research on Grade Retention. Educational Leadership, 47(8), 84-88Thomas, A.H. (1975). Alternatives to Retention.” If Failing Doesn’t Work, What Does? Oregon School Study Council, 35(6), 1 – 41. (ERK Document Reproduction Service No. ED 343, 209)

Thomas, K. (1990). Gender and Subject in Higher Education. Great Britain: The Society of Research into Higher Education and Open University press.

Tilaye, K. (1997). Gender-Specific Investigation into the Problem of High School Dropout in the Amhara Region. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, AAU.

Tilaye, K. (1999). The Problem of Secondary Schools in East Gojjam. The Ethiopian Journal of Education, XXX(1).

Tomchin, E. M., and Impara, J. C. (1992). Untraveling Teachers’ Beliefs about Grade Retention. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 199–223.

UNESCO. (1980). Wastage n Primary and Secondary Education: A Statistical Study of Trends and Patterns in Repetition and Dropout, (SRE, 3) Paris Division of Statistics on Education Office of Statistic, UNESCO.

UNESCO (1984). Wastage in Primary Education 1970, 1980. Prospects,14(3).

UNESCO (1988). Wasted Opportunities. When School Fail Repetitions and Dropout in Primary School Paris. UNESCO.

UNESCO (1995). Differentiated Types of Community Involvement that Help Minimizing Educational Wastage.

UNESCO (1998). World Education Report 1995, Paris. UNESCO

UNESCO (2002). The World Education Form, Paris. UNESCO

UNESCO (2014). Global Partnership for Girls’ and Women’s Education in Ethiopia-One Year On

UNICEF (1988). Children and Women in Ethiopia. Paris WK.

Wanna, L. and Tsion, D. (1994). Educational wastage: The case of female students in selected primary and secondary school of Ethiopia. Unpublished Research Report, AAU, CCRTWLD

Weiner, G. (1978). Education and the sex discrimination act. Educational Research, 20(3), 163-173.

Widdowson, H.G. (1978). Teaching Language as Communication. London, Oxford University Press.

Wilcox, R.T. 2000. Effective Teaching in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University Press.

World Bank. (1998). Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policies for Adjustment, Revitalization and Expansion. Washington, DC World Bank.

World Bank. (2002). Education in Ethiopia: Strengthening the Foundation of Sustainable Progress.

World Bank. (2014). Region: Sub Saharan Africa Income Group: Low Income. Updated National Educational Profile of Ethiopia.

Worku, Y. (1995). Primary school female participation and performance in Cheha district. Ministry of Education.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.5n.2p.84

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.