The Impact of Planning on Accuracy and Complexity in Oral Production of Male and Female English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Learners

Morteza Bagheri, Atefeh Hamrang


Over the years, researchers have been trying to help learners to approach a task in an effective way to promote their second language (L2) production and development. Researchers have found that giving planning time to learners can improve their L2 development (Foster & Skehan, 1996, Wendel, 1997). However, a few current findings about task planning are non comprehensive and nonsystematic. To fill this gap, this study examined the effects of both planning conditions and gender on learners’ oral performance in terms of accuracy and complexity among 40 Iranian students at an intermediate level. A total number of 40 participants based on an interview were selected for this study. Based on planning conditions, the participants were assigned to planning and non planning groups. Secondly, they were divided into male and female groups. The findings revealed that 10-minute planning, in comparison with no planning time, improved the accuracy and complexity of participants’ oral performance. Also, results regarding the effects of gender clarified that gender did not have any effect on the participants’ oral performance in terms of accuracy and complexity.


Planning, Accuracy, Complexity, Oral production

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