The Relationship between Learner Autonomy and Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Iranian EFL Learners with Different Language Proficiency Level

Ebrahim Azimi Mohammad Abadi, Abdollah Baradaran


Vocabulary learning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabulary learning since it provides the learners with numerous diverse privileges such as independency from teacher. The researcher investigated whether there is any statistically significant relationship between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in Iranian EFL learners with different language proficiency levels. To meet the above purpose, a total number of 190 male and female EFL learners participated in this study. The methodology underlying this study was quantitative (thorough the administration of two questionnaires and two language proficiency test – TOEFL for advanced group, and Nelson for intermediate level). The quantitative data was analyzed using a set of correlational analysis revealing a significant positive correlation between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in high proficient group, and a significant positive relationship between these two constructs in low proficient group, however not as strong as in the advanced group.



Learner Autonomy, Vocabulary Learning Strategies, EFL Learner

Full Text:



Aoki, N. (2008). Teacher stories to improve theories of learner/teacher autonomy. Independence, 43, 15-17.

Bocanegra, A., & Haidi, A. W. (1999). Language learner autonomy in practice: possibilities in a foreign language situation. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, 12, 7-17.

Carter, R. (1989). Vocabulary acquisition. Aila Review-Revue de L'aila, 6, 5-9.

Chamot, A. U. (2004). Issues in Language Learning Strategy Research and Teaching. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1(1), 14-26.

Cotterall, S. (2000). Promoting learner autonomy through the curriculum: principles for designing language courses. English Language Teaching Journal, 54(2), 109-117.

Dafei, D. (2007). An exploration of the relationship between learner autonomy and English proficiency. Professional Teaching Article, 1-23.

Gremmo, M. -J., & Riley, P. (1995). Autonomy, self-direction and self-access in language teaching and learning: The history of an idea. System, 23(2), 151-164.

Gu, Y., & Johnson. R. K. (1996). Vocabulary language learning and language learning outcome. Language Learning, 46(4). 643-679.

Haghi, M. (2009). The relationship between perceived self-efficacy and Iranan learners. Unpublished MA thesis, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch. Tehran. Iran.

Hatch, E., & Farhadi, H. (1982). Research design and statistics for applied linguistics. Massachusset: Newbury House.

Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and learning in the language classroom. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Little, D. (1995). Learning as dialogue: The dependence of learner autonomy on teacher autonomy. System, 23(2), 175-181.

Little, D. (2007). Language learner autonomy: some fundamental considerations revisited. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 14-29. doi: 10.2167/illt040.0.

Littlewood, W. (1996). “Autonomy”: An anatomy and a framework. System, 24(4), 427-435.

Littlewood, W. (1999). Defining and developing autonomy in East Asian contexts. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 71-94.

Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2005). Second language research: Methodology and Design. New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning Vocabulary in another Language. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Oxford, R. (1994). Language learning strategies: an update. CAL, Center for Applied Linguistic, 1-8.

Oxford, R. (2003). Language learning styles and strategies: an overview. GAlA, 1-25.

Scharle, A. & Szabo, A. (2000). Learner autonomy: A guide to developing learner responsibility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tahmasebi, A. (1999). Vocabulary learning strategies and the level of language proficiency. Unpublished MA thesis, Tarbiat Modarres University. Tehran, Iran.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.