Expeditions for Discovering and Monopolising the East in the Pre-colonial, Colonial and Post-colonial Periods

Khalid Sultan Thabet Abdu


This study examines the development of the genre of travel in the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial periods. Apart from the colonial hegemony, journeys in the pre-colonial times started from periphery to periphery. The journey of Ibn-Battuta to the east has given a lot of attention in this study. However, in the colonial period journeys had been directed from the Metropolis to the other parts of the world and travellers voyaged for the sake of exploration, curiosity, missionary, diplomacy, and trade activity. With the passage of time, European travellers changed their interest from trade activity to colonialism and that was clearly depicted in the mission of the East India Company as it turned its operation from trade activity to colonisation. Whereas in the post-colonial period, novel got international recognition and the settings of many novels include not only a particular country, but the entire world. Many novelists make their cosmopolitan characters to travel from one country to another and from one continent to another without recognition of the political boarders that separate people of the world from mixing with each other and that is due to the modern conception of globalisation as the world becomes a small village.


Pre-colonial, Colonial, Post-colonial, Ibn-battuta, Periphery, Hegemony, Colonisation, Cosmopolitan, Globalisation

Full Text:



Arasaratnam, S. “Trade and Political Domination in South India, 1750-1790: Changing British-Indian Relationships.” Modern Indian Studies 13 (1979): 19-40.

Brouwer, C.G. “Non-Western Shipping Movements in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden during the 2nd and 3rd Decades of the Seventeenth Century, According to the Records of East India Dutch Company.” (part 1) Die Welt des Islams 31 (1991): 105-67.

Campbell, Mary Baine. “Travel Writing and Its Theory.” The Cambridge Companion to Travel Writing. Eds. Peter Hulme and Tim Youngs. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 261-73.

Fischel, Walter J. “The Spice Trade in Mamluk Egypt: A Contribution to the Economic History of Medieval Islam.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 1.2 (1958): 157-74.

Flecker, Michael. “A Ninth-Century AD Arab or Indian Shipwreck in Indonesia: First Evidence for Direct Trade with China.” World Archaeology 32 (2001): 335-54.

Ghosh, Amitav. In an Antique Land. New Delhi: Ravi Dayal , 1992.

Gilbert, Erik. “Coastal East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean: Long-Distance Trade, Empire, Migration and Regional Unity, 1750-1790.” The History Teacher 36 (2002): 7-34.

Huddart, David. Homi K. Bhabha (Routledge Critical Thinkers). Eds. Robert Eaglestone and Royal Holloway. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Huggan, Graham. “Consuming India.” The Postcolonial Exotic. London: Routledge, 2001. 58-82.

Jackson, Peter. “Marco Polo and His 'Travels.’” School of Oriental and African Studies 61(1998): 82-101.

Khair, Tabish et al., eds. Other Routes: 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2005.

Kobishchanow, Yu. M. “On the Problem of Sea Voyages of Ancient Africans in the Indian Ocean.” Journal of Africans History 6 (1965): 137-41.

Lewis, Bernard. “The Muslim Discovery of Europe.” Bulletin of School of Oriental and African Studies 20.1/3 (1975): 409-16.

Mee, Jon. “After Midnight: the Novels in the 1980s and 1990s.” An Illustrated History of Indian Literature in English. Ed. Arvind Krishna Mehrotra. New Delhi: Permanent Black, 2003. 318- 36.

Mukherjee, Meenakshi. “The Anxiety of Indianness.” Mapping Cultural Spaces: Postcolonial Indian Literature in English. Eds. Nilufer E. Bharucha and Vrinda Nabar. New Delhi: Vision Books, 1998. 78-93.

Oaten, Edward Farley. Europeans Travellers in India. Eds. Hiralal Singh et al. Lucknow: Pustak Kendra, 1973. 1-16.

Prasad, Ram Chandra. Introduction. Early English Travellers in India: A Study in the Travel Literature of the Elizabethan and Jacobean Periods with Particular Reference to India. By Prasad. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1980. VIII-XXXII.

Pratt, Mary Louise. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. London: Routledge, 1992.

Ravi, P. S. Modern Indian Fiction: History, Politics and Individual in the Novels of Salman Rushdie, Amitav Ghosh and Upamanyu Chatterjee. New Delhi: Prestige, 2003.

Rubies, Joan-Pau. “Travel Writing and Ethnography.” The Cambridge Companion to Travel Writing. Eds. Peter Hulme and Tim Youngs. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 242-60.

Said, Edward W. Orientalism. New Delhi: Penguin, 1995.

Sarma, Suchitra. “Perceiving the Land, Writing the Land: The Colonial Traveller’s Gaze on India (1600-1875).” Travel Writing and Colonialism. Ed. Sachidananda Mohanty. New Delhi: Prestige, 2003. 34-68.

Sherman, William H. “Stirrings and Searchings (1500-1720).” The Cambridge Companion to Travel Writing. Eds. Peter Hulme and Tim Youngs. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 17-34.

Smith, Andrew. “Migrancy, Hybridity, and Postcolonial Literary Studies.” The Cambridge Companion to Postcolonial Literary Studies. Ed. Neil Lazarus. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. 241-61.

Vinoda, T. Introduction. The Expatriate Indian Writing in English. By Vinoda. Eds. T. Vinoda and P.Shailaja. Vol. II. New Delhi: Prestige, 2006. 11-20.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.