The Comparative Effect of Audio-taped Homework/Feedback and Written Homework/Feedback on EFL Learners’ Willingness to Communicate

Zeinab Ghasemi


Willingness to communicate emerges as a concept to account for an individual’s personality orientation and readiness toward talking and entering into discourse with a specific person and a particular time (McCroskey & Baer 1985; McCroskey & Richmond 1991). This is also valued in language learning as a crucial goal and achievement. Moreover an indispensable tool for stepping forward in the subject is a form of learnt activities reactivation during out-of-class time, which is called homework (Paudel, 2012). This is considered as a vehicle through which language learners reach the planned academic achievements faster (Amiryousefi, 2016). Two well-known subcategories of homework are seen as audio-taped and written ones. The use of audio homework comments (through MP3 files) versus written homework comments have become highly focused. Thus, the present study aimed at exploring the comparative effect of audio-taped and written homework/feedback on EFL learners’ willingness to communicate (WTC). The current study included 40 female intermediate language learners, learning English at a private institution. They were divided into two twenty-member experimental groups as Audio-taped homework/feedback and written. The participants mean age was about 18. Both groups received equal treatments, however the way they were asked for homework and the way to correct the handed in assignments were completely different (audi-taped ones were supposed to hand in their homework by recording their voice and also the teacher used the same technique making comments, but in written group the participants and the teacher were both required to have written homework and comments respectively). The results obviously indicated the considerable development of willingness to communicate through the application of audio-taped homework/feedback.


Willingness to Communicate (WTC), Audio-taped Homework/Feedback (ATF), Written Homework/Feedback

Full Text:



Amiryousefi, M. (2016). “Homework: Voices from EFL teachers and learners”.

Amiryousefi, M.(2016). Homework: Voices from EFL teachers and learners.

Clark, T.D. (1981). Cassette Tapes: an answer to the grading dilemma. The American Business Communication Association Bulletin, 44(2), 40-41.

Cooper, H. (1989). Synthesis of research on homework. Educational Leadership 47/3

Cooper, H., Robinson, J.C., & Patall, E.(2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987-2003. Review of Educational Research, 76,1-62.

Donovan, L. A., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2004). Age and Sex differences in willingness to communicate, communication apprehension, and self-perceived competence. Communication Research Reports, 21(4), 420-427.

Ellis, R. (2005). Instructed second language acquisition: A literature review. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Ministry of Education.

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition(2 nd ed.). Oxford:Oxford University Press.

Ellsasser, C. (2007). Do the math: Redesigning homework to create more time for learning. Encounter, 20, 20-24.

Hayward, M.(2010). The effect of homework on student achievement.

Hyland, K. (1990). Providing productive feedback. ELT Journal, 44(4), 279-285

Kang, S. –J.(2005), Dynamic emergence of situational willingness to communicate in a second language. System, 33(2), 277-292. doi: 10.1093/eltl/ccpo8o.

Khaki, SH.(2013).The relationship between learner Autonomy and Willingness to Communicate (WTC) in Iranian EFL learners.

Kirschner, P. (1991). Audiotaped Feedback for Essays in Distance. Language Learning, 52,537-564

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2012). On the roles of repetition in language teaching and learning. Applied Linguistics Review, 3(2), 195-210.

Loewen, S. (2015). Introduction to instructed second language acquisition. New York and London: Routledge.

MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clement, R., & Conrod, S.(2001). Willingness to Communicate, social support, and language learning orientations of immersion students. Studies on Second Language Acquisition, 23, 369-388.

MacIntyre, P.D., Baker, S.C., Clement , R., & Donovan, L.A. (2002). Sex and age affects on willingness to communicate, anxiety, perceived competence, and L2 motivation among Junior high school French immersion students.

McCroskey, J. C., and Baer, J.E. (1985). “Willingness to Communicate: The construct and its measurement.” Paper presented at “The annual conventionof the speech Communication Association”(November 1985). Denver, CO.

McCroskey, J. C., and Richmond, V.P. (1982). Communication apprehension and shyness: Conceptual and operational distinctions. Central States Speech Journal, 33, 458-468.

McCroskey, J. C., and Richmond, V.P. (1991). “Willingness to Communicate: A cognitive view.” In M.Booth-Butterfield (Ed.), Communication, cognition, and anxiety(pp. 19-37). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

McCroskey, J. C., and Richmond, V.P. (1991). Willingness to Communicate. In J.C. McCroskey& J.A.Daly(Eds.), Personality and interpersonal communication (pp. 129-156). Newburry Park, CA: Sage.

Nassaji, H., & Fotos, S.(2011). Teaching grammar in second in second language classrooms: Integrating form-focused instruction in communicative contexts. New York: Routledge.

North, S.,and H. Pillay. 2002. Homework: Re-examining the routine. ELT Journal 56 (2): 137-45.

Pallant, J. (2011). SPSS Survival manual. (4th ed.). Allen & Unwin. NSW.

Paudel, J.(2012). Dealing with Homework in English Language Teaching: A case of Dadelhura District.

Richards, J.C. (2015). The changing face of language learning beyond the classroom.

Strehorn, K. C. 2001. The application of universal instructional design to ESL teaching. Internet TESL Journal 7 (3).

Warton, P. M. (2001). The forgotten voices in homework: Views of Students. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 155-165.

Xu, J., & Wu, X. (2013). Self-Regulation of Homework Behaviour: Homework Management at the Secondary School Level. The Journal of Education Research, 106(1), 1-13

Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. Modern Laguage Journal, 86, 55-66.

Yu, M. (2009). Willingness to communicate of foreign language learners in a chinese setting (Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University, College of Education). Retrieved from:

Zarrinabadi, N. (2011). Willingness to communicate and Language Learning Orientations in Iraninan EFL Context.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2018 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.