Self-Efficacy and Critical Thinking as the Predictors of Autonomous Language Learning in EFL Contexts

Mania Nosratinia, Faranak Amiri Hossaini


The thrust of the present study was to systematically investigate the relationship between EFL learners' Self-Efficacy (SE), Critical Thinking (CT), and their Autonomy (AU). To this end, 196 male and female EFL learners, within the age range of 20 to 30 (Mage= 25) were selected based on convenience sampling strategy. They were asked to fill in three questionnaires, namely Sherer, Maddux, Mercadante, Prentice-Dunn, Jacobs, and Rogers' SE Scale (1982), Honey's CT questionnaire (2000), and Zhang and Li's Learner AU questionnaire (2004). Since the assumptions of normality of distribution were violated for the scores of AU and SE, in order to find out the relationships among the variables, the non-parametric Spearman Rank Order Coefficient of Correlation was conducted. The results revealed that there was a significant and positive correlation between AU and CT, AU and SE, and CT and SE. Furthermore, a regression analysis revealed that SE has the largest β coefficient (β = 0.519, t = 7.65, p = 0.0005). This is to say that SE makes the strongest statistically significant unique contribution to explaining AU. CT turned out to be the second significant predictor of AU scores (β = 0.186, t = 2.75, p = 0.007). The study concludes with a discussion on the obtained results followed by presenting some implications for EFL teachers, learners, and syllabus designers.  


autonomy, critical thinking, internal factors, self-efficacy

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