The Impact of ESA Elements on Motivation of EFL Learners to Speak: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners

Hooshang Khoshsima, Hadi Shokri


Implementing a best course of action to boost English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ motivation to speak has been a controversial issue among EFL instructors. The present study aims to investigate the probable impact of Harmer’s ESA (Engagement, Study, and Activate) elements implementation on motivation of EFL learners to speak. To meet this objective, first, the pre-treatment questionnaire was delivered to 15 EFL learners at the beginning of the term to measure ‘input motivation’. After collecting information from the pre-treatment questionnaire, the students were taught for nearly two months by applying ESA elements, and then the post-treatment questionnaire was given to the same students to gather information of students’ motivation changes, students’ attitudes towards techniques and activities applied by teachers and their preferences. Additionally, to triangulate the results, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was run to see if there is any relationship between the learners’ speaking performance and their motivation to speak. In sum, the results of the questionnaires and correlation analysis proved that the treatment of the learners via ESA approach was quite influential in boosting EFL learners’ motivation to speak. It is expected that the findings of the study may significantly contribute to work of EFL teachers, EFL learners, policy makers, supervisors and researchers. 


ESA Elements, Motivation, Speaking

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