Agitation for Social Justice and Moral Reform in Yeast and Alton Locke: Dialectical Interplay Between Rigid Attitudes and Humanistic Approach

Taher Badinjki


In his attempt to bring about social reform of the appalling conditions of the working class, Charles Kingsley turned his fictional works into serious instruments of social justice and platforms to spread his views to the public. He envisioned his novels, as opportunities for readers to see with new eyes the possibilities of cooperation between classes, and called for a change of heart and for the prevailing of fellow-feeling and human brotherhood. The shadowy and degraded figures of Alton Locke and Yeast, are shown as victims of the prevailing social class division and morally irresponsible industrial relationships. Kingsley draws attention to their miserable conditions but does not delve deep into their problems. He makes touching pictorial description of their miserable conditions for the sake of raising his readers' pity, and he uses them as instruments of bringing about social reform.



Kingsley, fiction, art, social justice, moral reform, Yeast, Alton Locke

Full Text:



Bradley, J.L. (Ed). (1965). "Introduction" to Selections from London Labour and the London Poor. Oxford: OUP.

Dexter, W. (Ed). (1938). The Letters of Charles Dickens. (vol.1). Bloomsbury: The Nonesuch Press.

Huxley, E. (1973). The Kingsleys: A Biographical Anthology .London: Allen and Unwin.

Kettle, A. (1982). "The Early Victorian Social-Problem Novel" in Boris F. (Ed.) The New Pelican Guide to English Literature: From Dickens to Hardy. London: Penguin Books.

Kingsley, Ch. (1881). Alton Locke: Tailor and Poet. London: Macmillan.

Kingsley, Ch. (1891). Yeast: A Problem. London: Macmillan.

Kingsley, F.E. (Eed). (1877). Charles Kingsley: His Letters and Memories of His Life. (2 vols). London: Henry S. King & Co.

Kingsley, F.E. (Ed). (2011). Charles Kingsley, His Letters and Memories of His, Life. (Vol. 2). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Martin, R.B. (1959). The Dust of Combat: A Life of Charles Kingsley. London: Faber and Faber.

Pollard, A. (Ed). (1970). The Victorians. (Vol. vi) History of Literature in the English Language. London: Barrie and Jenkins.

Stanley, B.E. (1934). Charles Kingsley. Cornell University Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.