Relationship between Intermediate EFL Learners' Communication Apprehension, Willingness to Communicate, and Speaking Ability

Maryam Rahmatollahi, Gholamhassan Famil Khalili


Speaking is the first to be acquired in the process of language production. In parallel, the absence of communication apprehension and the presence of willingness to communicate are the essential prerequisites for stringing words together. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to investigate the underlying patterns of the relationship between communication apprehension (CA), willingness to communicate (WTC), and speaking ability with regard to different contexts and receivers. In so doing, to assign the homogeneity of the sample, Nelson English Language Test was administered and 120 individuals were selected out of 253. Subsequently, Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) and Willingness to Communicate Questionnaire were employed in order to determine language learners' levels of WTC and CA. Moreover, the researchers utilised the sample interview questions from Task 1 of the intermediate Speaking Test and the speaking scale provided by Farhady, Birjandi, and Ja'farpur (1994) to interview with individuals and determine their speaking ability. Then, the non-parametric data were analyzed using a Spearman's rank order rho correlation. The results illustrated that individuals' speaking ability was neither related to their level of CA nor to their WTC. Moreover, the findings showed that CA and WTC had a negative correlation. Consequently, CA can be considered as one of the predicators of WTC in academic contexts.


Communication apprehension, speaking ability, willingness to communicate

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