How Emotional Intelligence and Language Learning Strategies Interact in an EFL Setting

Alireza Shakarami, Hassan Khajehei


Looking at learning procedure in general and language learning in particular, variations abound in learning processes and styles.  Along this journey, some learners travel/move ahead smoothly and some others are faced with challenges of different sorts.  Among the significant factors contributing to more effective and efficient language learning output, motivation, attitude, and personality traits play major roles. However, the role played by the intelligence seems to be critical in any language learning tasks and activities. Emotional Intelligence, which is believed to harmonize cognitive and emotional dispositions, seems to be indispensable to the interrelation between the learner’s Multiple Intelligence makeup and respective preferred learning strategies.   This can be used to develop materials and teaching tasks to become more or less compatible with the learners’ varying preferences and abilities, thereby promoting their achievements. The findings of the study pertaining to the interrelation of students’ Multiple Intelligence profile and their preferred Language Learning Strategies can be used to plan and categorize language learning and teaching tasks and materials in order to modify them more in accordance with the choice of the students. The educators might use the findings to choose from among various teaching materials to satisfy the needs of their learners with different illiteracies through conducting need analysis prior to choosing any learning and teaching content materials. 



Emotional Intelligence, Language Learning Strategies, Interrelation, EFL

Full Text:



Bar-On, R. E. (1997). BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Technical manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems Inc.

Bar-On, R. E. (2006). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI) 1. Psicothema, 18(Suplemento), 13-25.

Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Boyatzis, R. E. (1999). Self-directed change and learning as a necessary meta-competency for success and effectiveness in the 21st century. In R. Sims & J. G. Veres (Eds.), Keys to Employee Success in the Coming Decades (pp. 15-32). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.

Boyatzis, R. E., Goleman, D., & Rhee, K. (2000). Clustering competence in emotional intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI). Handbook of emotional intelligence, 343-362.

Chemiss, С., & Goleman, D. (2001). The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace* Jossey-Bass. San Francisco, CA.

Cooper, R. K., & Sawaf, A. (1997). Executive EQ: Emotional intelligence in leadership and organizations. New York: Grosset/Putnam.

Dawda, D., & Hart, S. D. (2000). Assessing emotional intelligence: Reliability and validity of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) in university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(4), 797-812.

Dulewitz, V., & Higgs, M. (1999). “Can emotional intelligence be measured and developed?”. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 20(5), 242-252.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ for character, health and lifelong achievement. New York: Bantam Books.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Lusch, R. F., & Serpkenci, R. (1990). Personal differences, job tensions, job outcome and store performance: A study of retail managers Journal of Marketing.

Mayer, J. D., DiPaolo, M., & Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of personality assessment, 54(3-4), 772-781.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of Intelligence (pp. 396-420). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Nelson, D. B., & Low, G. R. (2003). Emotional intelligence: Achieving academic and career excellence. MIND, 97, 145.

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New Yourk: Newbury House Publishers.

Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., et al. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and individual differences, 25(2), 167-177.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.