Studying A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man through Heterogeneous Philosophy of Georges Bataille

Shataw Naseri, Kian Soheil

Abstract


Georges Bataille believes that most of his contemporary discourses were spiritual and/or intellectual ones. They were, for him, vegetation-like discourses looking upward and underlining the role of head and thinking in their paradigms. He, instead, introduced the notion of "base materialism" which highlights the role of the lower parts of the body; it is here that Bataille raises the notion of "Acéphale" who has beheaded himself with a dagger in his right hand, and thus has beheaded the ruling head of his own body as well as the heads of his surrounding social discourses. For George Bataille, humans are linguistic being entrapped forever in a language system. However, he believes that this system is full of fissures and that through transgressive moments one can experience these voids within language. Through transgression one can look directly in the abyss of language, though he/she cannot see the extremity of these voids and thus Bataille believes that one cannot reach any signified, and therefore, any Bataillean "Impossible." As one can witness, linguistic human being is entrapped within narratives of language system defining him in terms of cause and effect and their related items namely linear time and space. Georges Bataille believes that any heterogeneous element which crosses the defined taboos of the body of self and society at some transgressive moments is regarded as a "foreign body" and an "alterity." This foreign body, as he regards, at the instants of transgression experiences "sovereignty" which means that he is at the epic of being a "sovereign being," of course momentarily, because he at those moments has stepped upon any ruling borders and is bound with no taboo and thus is the "sovereign" of instants. The present study endeavors to analyze Stephen Dedalus in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and his Bataillean experiences in terms of narrative and language. A Portrait will be concentrated in the light of the heterogeneous notions of Georges Bataille in order to investigate if one can consider Stephen Dedalus as a horizontal Bataillean character. This study attempts to trace Bataille’s notion of language as an unsolvable maze in A Portrait; the maze which has entrapped human beings forever. It is here that his view of the linear narrative and its linear time and space, is raised and is analyzed through a Bataillian viewpoint.

 


Keywords


Impossible, narrative, Achephale, Obelisk, Stephan Dedalus

Full Text:

PDF

References


Attridge, Derek. (2004a). Joyce's Effects on Language, Theory and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

ed. (2004b).The Cambridge Companion to James Joyce. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bataille, Georges. (1991). The Accursed Share. Trans. Robert Hurley.3 vols. New York: Zone Books.

--- (1962) Death and Sensuality: A Study of Eroticism and the Taboo. New York: Walker and Company.

Bruce Boone. (Trans). (1992). On Nietzsche. London: The Athlone Press.

Joachim Neugroschel (Trans). (1987). Story of the Eye.Trans. Joachim Neugroschel. San Francisco: City lights Books.

Theory of Religion.(1989). Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Zone Books.

Benstock, Shari. (1982) "The Dynamics of Narrative Performance: Stephen Dedalus as Storyteller." ELH, Vol. 49, No. 3. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 707-38.

Beplate, Justin. (2005 ) "Joyce, Bergson, and the Memory of Words." The Modern Language Review, Vol.

, No. 2.Modern Humanities Research Association. 298-312.

Besnier, Jean-Michel, and Amy Reid. (1990) "Georges Bataille in 1930s: A Politics of the Impossible." Yale French Studies, No. 78.Yale University Press. 169-180.

Booker. M. Keith, and DubravkaJuraga. (1993) "Power and Oppression in Stalinist Russia and Catholic Ireland: DaniloKis'sUse of Joyce in 'A Tomb for Boris Davidovich.'" South Atlantic Review, Vol. 58, No. 4. South Atlantic Modern Language Association.39-58.

Boulter, Jonathan. (2000) "The Negative Way of Trauma: Georges Bataille'sStory of the Eye." Cultural Critique, No. 46.University of Minnesota Press. 153-78.

Bourges, Antony. (1973). Language of James Joyce. New York: A Harvest/HBJ books.

Brenkman, John. (1979) "Introduction to Bataille."New German Critique, No. 16. Duke University Press. 59- 63.

Brown, Richard. (1985) James Joyce and Sexuality. New York: Cambridge University Press Us.

Bulson, Eric. (2006). The Cambridge Introduction to James Joyce. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Buttigieg, Joseph A. (1981). "The Struggle against Meta (Phantasma)-Physics: Nietzsche, Joyce and the Excess of History." Boundary 2, Vol. 9/10, No. 3. Duke University Press. 187-207.

Carroll, Michael P. (1995). "Rethinking Popular Catholicism in Pre-Famine Ireland."Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 34, No. 3.Blackwell Publishing.

Conner, Peter. (1993). "Mysticism and Morality in Georges Bataille."Assemblage, No. 20. The MIT Press, 30-31. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3181685

Crowly, Martin.(2004). "Bataille's Tacky Touch."MLN, Vol. 119, No. 4. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 766-80.

Delmonico, Neal. (1973)."From Rapture to the AcéphalicMan: A Reading of Georges Bataille." Mississippi Review, Vol. 17, No. 1/2. University of Southern Mississippi. 49-71.

Deming, Robert H., ed. (2002). The Critical Heritage James Joyce.Vol. 1. New York: Routledge.

Valente, Joseph. (1989). Joyce and Sexuality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Doherty, James. (1963). "Joyce and Hell Opened to Christians: The Edition He Used for 'Hell Sermon.'"Modern Philology, Vol. 61, No. 2. The University of Chicago Press.110-19.

Donoghue, Denis. (1960). "Joyce and the Finite Order."The Sewanee Review, Vol. 68, No. 2. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 31-48.

Dragon, Dean. (1996). "The Work of Alterity: Bataille and Lacan."Diacritics, Vol. 26, No. 2. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 31-48.

Elbarbary, Samir. (1989). "The Image of Goat in Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man."College Literature,Vol. 16, No. 3. College Literature. 261-73.

Fargnoli, A. Nicholas, and Michael Patrick Gillespie.(2006). A Critical Companion to James Joyce. NewYork: Facts On File, Inc.

Foster, John Wilson, ed. (2006) The Cambridge Companion to the Irish Novel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gibson, Andrew. (2006). James Joyce. London: Reaktion Books Ltd.

Giovanelli, Felix, Stanislaus Joyce. (1950). "James Joyce: A Memoir." The Hudson Review. The Hudson Review, Inc. 485-514.

Goodwin, James. (2000). "Eisenstein, Ecstasy, Joyce and Hebraism."Critical Inquiry, Vol. 26, No. 3. The University of Chicago Press. 529-57.

Guerlac, Suzanne. (1996). "Bataille in Theory: Afterimage (Lascaux)." Diacritics, Vol. 26, No. 2.The Johns Hopkins University Press. 6-17.

Hayman, David. (1995). "Attitudinal Dynamics in Narrative: Flaubert, Lawrence, Joyce." Journal of ModernLiterature, Vol. 19, No. 2.Indiana University Press. 201-14.

---. (1985). "James Joyce, Paratactitian. "Contemporary Literature, Vol. 26, No. 2. University of Wisconsin Press. 155-78.

Helming, Steven. (1988). "Joyce: Autobiography, History, Narrative." The Kenyon Review, New Series. Vol. 10, No. 2.Kenyon College. 91-109. < http://www.jstor.org/stable/4335939>

Hollywood, Amy. (1999). "'Beautiful as a Wasp': Angela of Foligno and Georges Bataille." The Harward Theological Review, Vol. 92, No. 2. Cambridge University Press. 219-36.

---. (1996). "Bataille and Mysticism: A 'Dazzling Dissolution.'" Diacritics, Vol. 26, No. 2. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 74-85.

Irwin, Alexander. (2002). Saints of the Impossible: Bataille, Weil, and the Politics of the Sacred. London: University of Minnesota Press.

Itzkowit, Kenneth. (1999). "To Witness Spectacles of Pain: The Hypermorality of Georges Bataille." College Literature, Vol. 26, No. 1. College Literature. 19-33.

Jacobs, Joshua. (2000). "Joyce's Epiphanic Mode: Material Language and the Representation of Sexuality in Stephen Hero and Portrait." Twentieth Century Literature, Vol. 46. No. 1.Hofstra University. 22-33.

Joyce, James. (2011). A Portrait of the Artist as Young Man. London: Urban Romantics.

Jurga, Dubravka, M. Keith Booker. (1993). "Literature, Power, and Oppression in Stalinist Russia and Catholic Ireland: DaniloKis's Use of Joyce in A Tomb for Boris Davidovich." South AtlanticReview, Vol. 58, No. 4. South Atlantic Modern Language Association. 39-58.

Kaufman, Eleanor. (2001). The Delirium of Praise: Bataille, Blanchot, Deleuze, Foucault, Klossowski.Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Kendall, Staurt. (2007). Georges Bataille. London: Reaktion Books Ltd.

Kershner, R. B. (1986). "The Artist as Text: Diologism and Incremental Repetition in Joyce's Portrait." ELH, Vol. 53, No. 4. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 881-94.

Kibler, Louis. (1974). "Imagery in Georges Bataille'sLe Bleu du ciel."The French Review. Special Issue, No. 6. California: American Association of Teachers of French. 208-18.

Kosky, Jeffrey. (2004). "Georges Bataille's Religion without Religion: A Review of the Possibilities Opened by The Publication of The Unfinished System of Knowledge." The Journal of Religion, Vol. 84, No. 1. The University of Chicago Press. 78-87.

Lahiji, Nadir. (1996). "The Gift of the Open Hand: Le Corbusier Reading Georges Bataille'sLa Part Maudite.Maudite."Journal of Architectural Education, Vol. 50, No. 1.Blackwell Publishing. 50-76.

Lala, Maria-Christine, and Robert Livingston.(1990). "The Conversions of Writing in Georges Bataille'sL'Impossible."Yale French Studies, No. 78. Connecticut: Yale University Press. 237-45.

Lechte, John. (2001). Fifty Key Contemporary Thinkers: from Structuralism to Postmodernity. New York:Routledge.

Leonard, Garry.(1995). "The City, Modernism, and Aesthetic Theory in A Portrait of the Artist as a YoungMan."NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction, Vol. 29, No. 1. Carolina: Duke University Press. 79-99.

Levenson, Michael. (1985). "Stephen's Diary in Joyce's Portrait-The Shape of Life."ELH, Vol. 52, No. 4. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 1017-35.

Libertson, Joseph. (1976). "Proximity and the Word: Blanchot and Bataille." Substance, Vol. 5, No. 14.University of Wisconsin Press. 35-49.

---. (1977). "Excess and imminence: Transgression in Bataille." NLN, Vol. 92, No. 5. The Johns HopkinsUniversity Press. 1001-23.

Lowe-Evans, Mary. (1990). "Sex and Confession in the Joyce Canon: Some Historical Parallels."Journal of Modern Literature, Vol. 16, No. 4.Indiana University Press. 563-76.

McCarthy, Michael J. F. (1902). Priest and People in Ireland. Dublin: Hodges, Figgis&co.

Martin, Timothy P. (1984). "Joyce, Wagner, and the Artist-Hero."Journal of Modern Literature, Vol. 11, No. 1.India University Press. 66-88.

Mason, Ellsworth. (1956). "James Joyce: Moralist." Twentieth Century Literature, Vol. 1, No. 4. Hofstra University. 196-206.

McCabe, Colin. (2003). James Joyce and the Revolution of the Word. New York: Polgrave MacMillan.

McCourt, John. (2009). James Joyce in Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McDonald, Michael Bruce. (1991). "The Strength and Sorrow of Young Stephen: Toward a Reading of the Dialectic of Harmony and Dissonance in Joyce's Portrait." Twentieth Century Literature, Vol. 37, No. 4. New York: Hofstra University. 361-89.

McMichael, James . (1989). "James Joyce Speaks." The Kenyon Review, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 3. KenyonCollege. 27-40. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4336103

Michelson, Annette. (1986). "Heterology and the Critique of Instrumental Reason."October, Vol. 36. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 111-27.

Milesi, Laurent, ed. (2003). James Joyce and the Difference of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Morse, J. Mitchell. (1957). "The Disobedient Artist: Joyce and Loyola." PMLA, Vol. 72, No. 5. Modern Language Association. 1018-35. < http://www.jstor.org/stable/460377>

Nicholson, Melanie. (1999). "Pizarnik, Aljandra, Georges Bataille and the Literature of Evil."Latin AmericanLiterary Review, Vol. 27, No. 54. Latin American literary Review. 5-22.

Noys, Benjamin. (2000). Georges Bataille: A Critical Bataille Introduction. London: Pluto Press.

Pollock, Michele R. (1973). "Georges Bataille: Literature and Sovereignty." SubStance, Vol. 3, No. 7.University of Wisconsin Press. 49-71. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3684587

Power, Arthur. (1999). Conversations with James Joyce. Dublin: Lilliput Press.

Prescott, Joseph. (1939). "James Joyce: A Study in Words." PMLA, Vol. 54, No. 1. Modern LanguageAssociation. 304-15.

Reid, B. L. (1984). "Gnomon and Order in Joyce's Portrait." The Sewanee Review, Vol. 2, No. 3. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 397-420.

Reynold, Mary T. (1976). "Joyce's Villanelle and D'Annunzio's Sonnet Sequence."Journal of Modern Literature, Vol. 5, No. 1.Indiana University Press. 19-45.

Ryf, Robert S. (1964). A New Approach to Joyce The Portrait of the Artist as Guide Book. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Schwarze, Tracey Teets. (1997). "Silencing Stephen: Colonial Pathologies in Victorian Dublin." Twentieth Century Literature.Hofstra University. 243-63.

Scholes, Robert. (1964). "Joyce and Epiphany: The Key to the Labyrinth." The Sewanee Review, Vol. 72, No.1. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 65-77. < http://www.jstor.org/stable/27540956>

Singer, Thomas C. (1990). "Riddles, Silence, and Wonder: Joyce and Wittgenstein Encountering the Limits ofLanguage."ELH, Vol. 57, No. 2. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Splitter, Randolph. (1982). "Watery Words: Language, Sexuality, and Motherhood in Joyce's Fiction." ELH, Vol. 49, No. 1. The Johns Hopkins University press. 190-213.

Spoo, Robert. (1988). "Joyce's Attitude toward History: Rome, 1906-07." Journal of Modern Literature, Vol. 14, No. 4.Indiana University Press. 481-97. < http://www.jstor.org/stable/3831561>

---. (1994). James Joyce and the Language of History: Dedalus's Nightmare. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Thomas, Calvin. (1990). "Stephen in Process/Stephen on Trial: The Anxiety of Production in Joyce's Portrait." NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction, Vol. 23, No. 3. Duke University Press: 282-302.

Thrane, James R. (1960). "Joyce's Sermon on Hell: Its Source and Its Background." Modern Philology, Vol. 57, No. 3. The University of Chicago Press. 172-98.

Toolan, Michael. (1987). "Analyzing Conversation in Fiction: The Christmas Dinner Scene in Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man." Poetics Today, Vol. 8, No. 2. Carolina: Duke University Press. 398-416.

Walzl, Florence L. (1965)."The Liturgy of the Epiphany Season and the Epiphanies of Joyce."PMLA, Vol.80, No. 4. Modern Language Association. 436-50.

Weiss, Allen S. (1986). "Impossible Sovereignty: Between "The Will to Power" and "The Will to Chance."October, Vol. 36. Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Weston, Michael. (2001). Philosophy, Literature and the Human Good. New York: Routledge.

Wilde, Dana. (1989). "A Note on Stephen's Shapeless Thoughts from Swedenborg in A Portrait of the Artist."Journal of Modern Literature, Vol. 16, No. 1.Indiana University Press. 179-81.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.3n.5p.261

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.