A Study of Corrective Feedback and Learner's Uptake in Classroom Interactions

Fatemeh Esmaeili, Biook Behnam


The present study aims to examine corrective feedback and learner uptake in classroom interactions. Inspired by Lyster and Ranta’s corrective feedback framework (1997), this study intends to describe and analyze the patterns of corrective feedback utilized by Iranian teachers, and learners' uptake and the repair of those errors. To this aim, 400 minutes of classroom interaction from three elementary EFL classes which comprised 29 EFL learners were audiotaped and transcribed. The learners were within age range of 16-29 and were native speakers of Turkish language. The teachers were within 26-31 age range and had 3-4 years experience of teaching and hold MA degree in TOEFL. Analysis of data constituted the frequency of six different feedback types used by three teachers, in addition distribution of learners' uptake following each feedback type. The findings indicated that among six corrective feedback types, recast was the most frequent feedback utilized by teachers although it did not lead to high amount of learner uptake. Metalinguistic feedback, elicitation and clarification request led to higher level of uptake. It was also found that explicit feedback was more effective than implicit feedback in promoting learner uptake.



Corrective Feedback, Learner Uptake, Classroom Interaction, EFL Teachers, EFL Learners

Full Text:



Abadikhah, Sh. & Zarrabi, F. (2011). The effect of output tasks on the acquisition of English verbal morphemes. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(11), 1549-1560.

Agbatogun, A. (2011). Promoting students’ participation: communicative functions of repair in a Nigerian computer science classroom. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(15).

Bargiela, M. M. (2003). Teacher feedback and learners' uptake. Linguagem em (Dis)curso, Tubarão, 4(1), 81-96.

Bower, J. & Kawaguchi, S. (2011). Negotiation of meaning and corrective feedback in Japanese English tandem. Language Learning & Technology,15 (1), 41–71

Chaudron, C. (1988). Second language classrooms: Research on teaching and learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Chu, R. (2011).Effects of Teacher’s Corrective Feedback on Accuracy in the Oral English of English-Majors College Students. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(5), 454-459.

Doughty, C. & J. William. (1998). Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In C. Doughty, & J. Williams (eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press, 197-261.

Ding, T. (2009). The comparative effectiveness of recasts and prompts in second language Classrooms. Journal of Cambridge Studies, 7(2), 83-97.

El Tatawy , M .(2002 ) . Corrective feedback in second language acquisition, Working papers in TESOL and Applied Linguistics,2 (2), 1-19.

Ellis, R. (1993). The structural syllabus and second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 27, 91–113.

Ellis, R. (2001). Some thoughts on testing grammar: An SLA perspective. In C. Elder, A. Brown, E. Grove, K. Hill, N. Iwashita, T. McNamara & K. O‟ Louglin (eds.), Experimenting in uncertainty: Essays in honor of Alan Davis. Cambridge: University Press, 251-263.

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R., & Sheen, Y. (2006). Re-examining the role of recasts in L2 acquisition. Studies in Second language Acquisition, 28(4), 575-600.

Fang. X. (2010). The role of input and interaction in second language acquisition. Cross- Cultural Communication, 6,(1),11-17.

Faster, P. & Ohta, A. (2005). Negotiation for meaning and peer assistance in second language classrooms. Applied Linguistics 26(3), 402–430.

G. Samar, R. & Shayestefar, P. (2009). Corrective feedback in EFL classrooms: Learner negotiation strategies and uptake. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning 52 (212), 108-134

Lightbown, P. & N. Spada. (1990). Focus-on-form and corrective feedback in communicative language teaching: Effects on second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 529-448.

Long, M. H. (1983). Native speaker/non-native speaker conversation and the negotiation of comprehensible input. Applied Linguistics, 4, 126-141.

Long, M. H. (1996). The role of linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie& T. K. Bhatia (Eds.). Handbook of second language acquisition. (pp.413-463). San Diego; Academic Press.

Long, M. & P. Robinson. (1998). Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (eds.) Focus on form: Theory, research and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 15-41.

Lyster, R. (1998). Negotiation of form, recasts, and explicit correction in relation to error types and learner repair in immersion classrooms. Language Learning, 48, 183-218.

Lyster, R. (2002). Negotiation in immersion teacher–student interaction. International Journal of Educational Research 37, 237–253.

Lyster, R., 2004, Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(3), 399-432.

Lyster, R., and Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learners uptake: negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 37 – 61.

Mackey, A., Gass, S., & McDonough, K. (2000). How do learners perceive interactional feedback? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 471-497.

Nobuyoshi, J., & Ellis, R. (1993). Focused communication tasks and second language. ELT Journal, 47, 203-210.

Oliver, R. (1995). Negative feedback in child NS-NNS conversation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, 459-481.

Panova, I. & Lyster, R. (2002). Patterns of corrective feedback and uptake in an adult ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 36(4), 573 – 595.

Rezaei, S., Mozaffari, F. & Hatef, A. (2011). Corrective feedback in SLA: Classroom practice and future directions. International Journal of English Linguistics , 1(1), 21-29.

Russell, V. (2009). Corrective feedback, over a decade of research since Lyster and Ranta (1997): Where do we stand today? Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 6(1), 21-31.

Safari, P. (2013). A descriptive study on corrective feedback and learners' uptake during interactions in a communicative EFL class. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(7), 1165-1175

Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129-158.

Schmidt, R. (1995). Consciousness and foreign language learning: A tutorial on the role of attention and awareness in learning. In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (pp. 1-63). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Schmidt, R. W., & Frota, S. N. (1986). Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: A case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. In R. Day (Ed.), Talking to learn: Conversation in second language acquisition (pp. 237-326). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Slimani, A.(1992). The role of topicalization in classroom language learning. System 17, 223–234.

Suzuki, M. (2005). Corrective feedback and learner uptake in adult ESL classrooms. TESOL & Applied Linguistics. Columbia: Columbia University Press.

Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In Cook, G. (Ed.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in Honor of H. G. Widdowson (pp. 125–144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (1995). Problems in output and the cognitive processes they generate: A step towards second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 16, 370–391.

White, L. (1987). Against comprehensible input: The input hypothesis and the development of second language competence. Applied Linguistics, 8, 95-110.

Yousefi, M. & Biria (2011). Interactional feedback, task-based interaction and learner uptake. Contemporary Online Language Education Journal, 1, 1-19.

Yang, Y. and Lyster, R., 2010, Effects of form-focused practice and feedback on Chinese EFL learners’ acquisition of regular and irregular past tense forms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 235-263.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.3n.4p.204


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.