How Can I Teach Effectively When …: An Exploration of Factors Affecting Willingness to Teach Effectively (WTTE) among EFL Teachers

Parviz Birjandi, Atefeh Rezanejad


An effective teacher is defined as someone who achieves goals which either directly or indirectly focus on the learning of their students (Anderson, 1991). It goes without saying that, what can lead to a change in the behavior and learning  of the pupils is effective teaching, not a mere transmitting of knowledge. It is important to know how teachers define effective teaching and what factors they consider the most important in the course of being an efficient and successful teacher. Although many studies have investigated the issue of effective teaching in past, to the best of the researchers’ knowledge no study have investigated the factors affecting teachers’ willingness to teach effectively. This study focused on the Iranian EFL teachers’ attitude toward effectual teaching. Thirty five teachers participated in this study through filling a validated and piloted questionnaire. The results indicated that most of the teachers thought that an effective teacher tries to encourage pupil participation and gets all the students involved. The results further depicted, “Teachers’ beliefs and previous experience” was the top selected factor leading to (in)effective teaching among the subjects. The findings of this study can have important implications for teacher educators and also EFL teachers themselves.



Effective Teaching; Language; Iran; EFL; Questionnaire

Full Text:



Anderson, L. W. (1991). Increasing teacher effectiveness. Paris: UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.

Brosh, H. (1996). Perceived characteristics of the effective language teacher. Foreign Language Annals, 29(2), 125-136.

Bulger, S. M., Mohr, D. J., & Walls, R. T. (2002). Stack the deck in favor of your students by using the four aces of effective teaching. Effective Teaching, 5(2).

Chacón, C. T. (2005). Teachers’ perceived efficacy among English as a foreign language teachers in middle schools in Venezuela. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(3), 257–272.

Check, J. F. (1986). Positive traits of the effective teacher - negative traits of the ineffective one. Education.

Dembo, M. H. & Gibson, S. (1985). Teachers’ sense of efficacy: An important factor in school improvement. The Elementary School Journal, 86(2), 173-184.

Dunkin, M. (1997). Assessing Teachers’ Effectiveness. Issues in Educational Research, 7(1).

Crawford, P. L., & Bradshaw, H. L. (1968). Perception of characteristics of effective university teachers: A scaling analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 28(4), 1079-1085.

Feldman, K. A. (1989). Instructional effectiveness of college teachers as judged by teachers themselves, current and former students, colleagues, administrators, and external (neutral) observers. Research in Higher Education, 30, 137− 189.

Galton, M. (2007). Learning and teaching in the primary classroom. London: Sage.

Ghaith, G., & Shaaban, K. (1999). The relationship between perceptions of teaching concerns, teacher efficacy, and selected teacher characteristics. Teaching and Teacher Education 15(5), 487-496.

Ghasemi, B., & Hashemi, M. (2011). The study of the characteristics of successful English language teachers from the view point of the English language students of Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28, 411-415.

Goddard, R. D., Hoy, W. K., & Hoy, A. W. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 37(2), 479-507.

Good, T. & Brophy, J. (2003). Looking in Classrooms (9th edition). Boston: Pearson, Allyn and Bacon.

Hopkins, D., & D. Stern. (1996). “Quality teachers, quality schools: International perspectives and policy implications.” Teaching and Teacher Education, 12, 501-17.

Kerry, T. & Wilding, M. (2004). Effective classroom teacher: Developing the skills you need in today’s classroom. London: Pearson.

Khatib, M., & Rezaei, S. (2013). A model and questionnaire of language identity in Iran: A structural equation modeling approach. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. Doi: 10.1 080 /01434632.2013.796958.

Koutsoulis, M. (2003). The characteristics of the effective teacher in cyprus public high school: The students' perspective.

Kyriacou, C. (2009). Effective teaching in schools: Theory and practice. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

Lang, H. G., McKee, B. G., & Conner, K. (1993). Characteristics of effective teachers: A descriptive study of the perceptions of faculty and deaf college students. American annals of the deaf, 138(3), 252-259.

Leu, E. (2005). “The Role of Teachers, Schools, and Com munities in Quality Education: A Review of the Literature.” Working Paper #1. Academy for Educational Development, Global Education Center.

Markley, T. (2004). Defining the effective teacher: Current arguments in education. Essays in Education, 11(3), 1-14.

Marsh, H. W., & Roche, L. (1993). The use of students' evaluations and an individually structured intervention to enhance university teaching effectiveness. American Educational Research Journal, 30(1), 217-251.

Minor, L. C., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Witcher, A. E. (2002). Preservice teachers' educational beliefs and their perceptions of characteristics of effective teachers. The Journal of Educational Research, 96(2), 116-127.

Petty, G. (2006). Evidence Based Teaching: A Practical Approach. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

Rezanejad, A. & Rezaei, S. (2013). Academic Dishonesty at Universities: The Case of Plagiarism Among Iranian Language Students. Journal of Academic Ethics. DOI 10.1007/s10805-013-9193-8.

Richardson, V. (1996). The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach. In J. Sikula (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 102-119). New York: Simon & Schuster.

Slavin, R. E. (2006). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (8th edition). New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Stronge, J. H. (2007). Qualities of Effective Teachers (2nd edition). Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Vegas, E., & J. Petrow. (2008). Raising student learning in Latin America: The challenge for the 21st century. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Wilen, W., Hutchinson, J., & Ishler, M. (2008). Dynamics of effective secondary teaching (6th edition). New York: Pearson.

Witcher, A. E., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Minor, L. C. (2001). Characteristics of effective teachers: Perceptions of pre-service teachers. Research in the Schools.

Woolfolk, A. (2007). Educational psychology (10th edition). Boston: Pearson.

Woolfolk, A., Hughes, M. & Walkup, V. (2008). Psychology in education. London: Pearson.

Wragg, E. C. (2005). The art and science of teaching and learning: The selected works of Ted Wragg. London: Routledge Falmer.

Zhang, L. F. (2009). From conceptions of effective teachers to styles of teaching: Implications for higher education. Learning and individual differences, 19(1), 113-118.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.