The Influence of Demographic Factors on Teachers’ Instructional Practices and Challenges in Including Students with Visual Impairment in Government Secondary Schools of Harari Region

Paulos Dea, Dawit Negassa


The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of demographic factors on instructional practices and challenges teachers face in teaching students with visual impairments in the government secondary schools of Harari regional state. A quantitative method with a survey design was employed. The sample consisted of 100 (with 95% response rate) participants selected using simple random sampling technique. Data was collected using questionnaire in the form of Likert scale. Frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviation, independent t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that teachers’ level of qualification has implications to the instructional practices, namely their collaboration with other professionals, classroom supplies and equipment and teaching strategies. Teachers with training on inclusive or special needs education were found to use more specialized or individualized teaching strategies in the classroom for SVI than those who did not have training. Furthermore, years of teaching experience was found to influence teachers’ collaboration with other professionals. Teachers with bachelor’s degree and MA/MSc holders were found to face more challenges in adapting teaching strategies, materials and identifying the needs of SVI compared to teachers with diploma holders. The study concluded that the identified demographic factors were found to influence at least one of the teachers’ instructional practices in inclusion of SVI. The study concluded that teachers’ level of qualification has an influence on the challenges they face in teaching SVI in the government preparatory and secondary schools of Harari regional state.


Critical Disability Theory, Inclusive Education, Instructional Practices, Visual Impairment, Demographic Variables

Full Text:



Agesa, L. (2014). Challenges faced by learners with visual impairments in inclusive setting in Trans-Nzoia County. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(29), 185-192.

Ainscow, M., Booth, T., Dyson, A., Farrell, P., Frankham, J., Gallannaugh, F., & Smith, R. (2006). Improving schools, developing inclusion. London: Routledge.

Hadgu, A. (2015). Psychosocial and educational challenges and opportunities of students with visual impairment: The case of Adimahleka primary school in Adwa town. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Addis Ababa University.

Cipkin, G., & Rizza, F. T. (2010). The attitude of teachers on inclusion. Retrieved from attitude of teachers on inclusion.pdf.

Florien, L. (2012). Preparing teachers to work in inclusive classrooms: key lessons for the professional development of teacher educators from Scotland’s Inclusive Practice Project. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(4), 275-285

Beyene, G. & Tizazu, Y. (2010). Attitudes of teachers towards inclusive education in Ethiopia. J. Educ. & Sc. Review, 6 (1), 89-96.

Giangreco, M., Suter, J., & Hurley, S. (2011). Revisiting personnel utilization in inclusion-oriented schools. The Journal of Special Education, 20(10), 1-12. doi: 10.1177/0022466911419015.

Harari Regional Education Bureau. (2015). Educational statistics annual abstract: Planning and resource mobilization supportive process. Harar, Ethiopia.

Hofman, R.H & Kilimo J.S. (2014). Teachers' attitudes and self-efficacy towards inclusion of pupils with disabilities in Tanzanian schools. Journal of Education and Training, ISSN 2330 9709, 1(2). doi:10.5296/jet.v1i2.5760 URL:

Hosking, D.L. (2008). Critical disability theory. A paper presented at the 4thBiennial Disability Studies Conference at Lancaster University, UK.

Jobe, D., Rust, J.O., & Brissie, J. (1996). Teacher attitudes toward inclusion of students with disabilities into regular classrooms. Education, 117(1), 148-153.

Shifere, K. (2013). Inclusive teaching involving visually impaired students in English language teaching (ELT) settings. Unpublished PhD thesis.

McLaughlin, M. J., & Rouse M. (Eds.). (2000). Special education and school reform in the United States and Britain. London: Routledge.

Mittal, S.R. & Khanna, P. (2010). Comparative study of cognitive abilities and behavioral skills of blind and seeing children. I.A.S.E., Faculty of Education Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar New Delhi 110025, India.

Ministry of Education. (2010). Education Sector Development Program III (ESDP III): Program Action Plan. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.

Ministry of Education. (2016). Education Management Information System (EMIS) and ICT Directorate: Federal Democratic Government of Ethiopia. Education Statistics Annual Abstract. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Rakap, S., & Kaczmarek, L. (2010). Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion in Turkey. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 25, 59-75.

Ruys, I., van Keer, H., & Aelterman, A. (2010). Collaborative learning in pre-service teacher education: an exploratory study on related conceptions, self-efficacy, and implementation. Educational Studies, 36(5), 537-553.

SPeNSE (2001). SPeNSE Fact Sheet: General education teacher's role in special education. Retrieved February 24, 2017 from 11-29.pdf.

Villa, B.A., Thousand, J.S., Meyers, H. & Navin, A. (1996). Teacher and administrative perceptions of heterogeneous education. Exceptional Children, 63, 29-45.

Watermeyer, B.P. (2009). Conceptualizing psycho-emotional aspects of disability discrimination and impairment: Towards a psychoanalytically informed disability studies. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Stellenbosch University.

Wondwosen Mitiku, Yitayal Alemu, & Semahegn Mengsitu (2014). Challenges and opportunities to implement inclusive education. University of Gondar, Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Humanity, Art and Literature, Volume 1, No 2.

Mitiku, W., Alemu, Y., & Mengsitu, S. (2014). Challenges and opportunities to implement inclusive education. Asian Journal of Humanity, Art and Literature, 1(2), 118-135.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.