Twenty-First Century Instructional Classroom Practices and Reading Motivation: Probing the Effectiveness of Interventional Reading Programs

Taoufik Boulhrir


Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading motivation. As motivation hinges around two major theoretical approaches, intrinsic and extrinsic, numerous studies argue for the first to be more sustainable in enhancing reading motivation. Accordingly, many research-based interventional programs have emerged since the late nineties with increasing popularity to offer answers to the dwindling rates in reading among youth. This article discusses traits of 21st century education in light of trends and challenges as it probes the effectiveness of some interventional programs that are meant, and argued for, to enhance literacy skills and reading motivation.  


intrinsic, extrinsic, reading motivation, literacy skills, interventional programs

Full Text:



Baines, L. (2009). Reading & Happiness. The Phi Delta Kappan, 90(9), 686-688.

Biggers, D. (2001). The argument against Accelerated Reader. Journal of Adolescent & Adult 45 (1), 72-75.

Borgonovi, F. (2011, September). Do Students Today Read for Pleasure? Retrieved May 8, 2014, from

Cambria, J., & Guthrie, J. T. (2010). Motivating and Engaging Students in Reading. The NERA Journal , Volume 46 (1).

Chard, D. J., Vaughn, S., & Tyler, B.-J. (2002). A Synthesis of Research on Effective Interventions for Building Reading Fluency with Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities 35 (5), 386-406.

Chen, P.-H. a.-R. (2010). Rewards for Reading: Their Effects on Reading Motivation. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies 3(1), 1-8.

Chenoweth, K. (2001). Keeping Score. School Library Journal 47(9), 48-51.

Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Nakamura, J. (2002). The Concept of Flow. Retrieved July 17, 2014, from

Cunningham, E. A., & Stanovich, E. K. (1997, November ). Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33(6), 934-945. doi:

Dalton, D. W., & Hannafin, M. J. (1988). The effects of computer-assisted and traditional mastery methods on computation accuracy and attitudes. Journal of Educational, 28(1), 27–33. Retrieved from

Davidson, G. A. (2008) . Reading motivation and progress through Accelerated Reader : An action research project (Master's thesis). The College of St. Scholastica. ProQuest

Davidson, G. A. (2008). Reading Motivation and Progress through Accelerated Reader: An Action Research Project. The College of St. Scholastica. Ann Arbor: ProQuest.

Demos, E. S., & Foshay, J. D. (2010). Engaging the Disengaged . Retrieved July 25, 2014, from

Durik, A. M., Mina, V., & Eccles, J. S. (2006, May). Task Values and Ability Beliefs as Predictors of High School Literacy Choices: A developmental Analysis. Retrieved June 5, 2014, from

Fuchs , L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hosp, M. K. (2001). Oral Reading Fluency as an Indicator of Reading Competence: A Theoretical, Empirical, and Historical Analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 239-56 .

Gambrell , L., & Marinak, B. (2009). Simple Practices to Nurture the Motivation to Read. Retrieved September 22, 2015, from

Guinier, L. (1998). Lift Every Voice: Turning a Civil Rights Setback into a New Vision of Social Justice . New York: Simon & Schuster .

Guthrie, J. (2015). Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from

Guthrie, J. T., & Davis , M. H. (2003). Motivating Struggling Readers in Middle School through an Engagement Model of Classroom Practice. Reading & Writing Quarterly 19, 59-85.

Guthrie, J. T., Van Meter, P., McCann, A. D., Wigfield, A., Bennett, L., Poundstone, C. C., . . . Mitchell , A. M. (1996, July). Growth of Literacy Engagement: Changes in Motivations and Strategies during Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction. Retrieved June 16, 2014, from

Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield , A., Humenick, N. M., Kathleen , P. C., Taboada, A., & Barbosa, P. (2006, March). Influences of Stimulating Tasks on Reading Motivation and Comprehension. Retrieved May 15, 2014, from

Institute of Education Sciences. (n.d.). About the WWC. Retrieved July 17, 2015

Janes, J. L. (2008). Families, Motivation, and Reading: Pre-Adolescent Students and their Reading Motivation and Family Reading Habits. doi:Order No. 1454596

Jerald, C. D. (2009, July). Defining a 21st Century Education. Retrieved December 12, 2013, from

Jones, B., & Flannigan, S. (2008). Connecting the Digital Dots: Literacy of the 21st Century. Teacher Librarian, 35(3), 13-16.

King, M. M. (2012, May). Twenty First Cnetury Teadhing and Learning: Are Teachers Prepared? doi:3499020

Klauda, S. L., & Guthrie , J. T. (2008, May). Relationships of Three Components of Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 310-321.

Knoester, M. (2009, May). Inquiry Into Urban Adolescent Independent Reading Habits: Can Gee's Theory of Discourses Provide Insight? Retrieved July 16, 2014, from

Krashen, S. (2003). The (Lack of ) Experimental Evidence Supporting the Use of Accelerated. Journal of Children's Literature, 29(2), 16-30.

Lamb, A., & Larry , J. (2011, October ). Nurturing a New Breed of Reader: Five Real World Issues. Retrieved October 4, 2014, from

Logan, S., & Johnston, R. (2010, May). Investigating Gender Differences in Reading. Educational Review, 62(2), 175-187.

March, J. (2001). How to Design Effective Blended Learning. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from

McGeown, S. P., Norgate, R., & Warhurst, A. (2012). Exploring Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation among very Good and very Poor Readers. Educational Research, 54(3), 309-322.

McKenna , M. C., Kear , D. J., & Ellsworth, r. A. (1995, October). Children's Attitudes toward Reading: A National Survey. Retrieved October 13, 2013, from

Moje, E. B., Overby, M., Tysvaer , N., & Morris, K. (2008, Spring). The Complex World of Adolescent Literacy: Myths, Motivations, and Mysteries. Retrieved Agust 1, 2014, from

Monroe, B. J. (2004). Crossing the Digital Age: Race, Writing, and Technology in the Classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.

Moore, D. W., Prebble, S., Robertson, J., Waetford, R., & Anderson, A. (2001). Self-recording With Goal Setting: A self-management programme for the classroom. Educational Psychology, 21(3), 255-265.

Morgan, P., & Fuchs, D. (2007). Is There a Bidirectional Relationship between Children's Reading Skills and Reading Motivation?. Exceptional Children, 73(2), 165–183.

Mucherah, W., & Yonder, A. (2008, June 5). Motivation for Reading and Middle School Students' Performance on Standardized Testing in Reading. Retrieved May 14, 20, from

Murray , D. W., & Rabiner , D. L. (2014, January 24). Teacher Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Young Inattentive. Retrieved May 13, 2014, from

Nell, V. (1988). Lost in a Book: The Psychology of Reading for Pleasure. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Padak, N., & Potenza-Radis, C. (2010). Motivating struggling readers: Three keys to success. New England Reading Association Journal, 45(2), 1-7.

Prensky, M. (2001, October). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. Retrieved May 13, 2014, from

Pinnell, G. S., Campbell, J., Pikulski, J., Kapinus, B., Wixson, K., Gough, P., & Beatty, A. (1995). Listening to Children Read Aloud . The National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from

Renaissance Learning. (2015). A Parent’s Guide to Accelerated Reader. Retrieved June 16, 2014, from .

Reynolds, L. P., & Symons, S. (2001, March). Motivational Variables and Children's Text Search. Retrieved July 21, 2014, from

Risinger, A. (2013). Teacher Reading Motivation Practices. Retrieved May 16, 2014, from

Ryan, R., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Retrieved Jaunary 24, 2014, from

Sanacore, J., & Palumbo, A. (2010). Middle school students need more opportunities to read across the curriculum. A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83, 180-185. doi:10.1080/00098650903583735

Schiefele, U. (1999). Interest and Learning From Text. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(3), 257-279.

Stahl, S.A., S. Kuhn, M.R. (2002). Making it sound like language: Developing fluency. The Reading Teacher, 55,582-584.

Sullivan, M. (2004 ). Why Johnny Will Not Read. School Library Journal, 50(8), 36-39.

The National Reading Panel . (2000). Teaching Children to Read: An Avidence-based Assessment . Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development .

Tilley, C. (2009). Reading motivation and engagement. School Library Monthly, 26(4), 39-42.

Topping , K. J., & Paul, T. D. (1999). Computer-Assissted Assessment of Practice at Reading: A Large Scale Survey Using Accelerated Reader Data. Retrieved July 15, 2014, from

Topping, K. J., & Fisher , A. M. (2003). Computerised Formative Assessment of Reading Comprehension: field trials in the UK. Journal of Research in Reading, 26(3), 267–279.

Topping, K. J. (2006). Accelerated Reader in specialist schools. Scotland: Centre for Peer Learning,University of Dundee.

Topping, K. J., Samuels, J., & Paul, T. (2007). Computerized assessment of independent reading: Effects

of implementation quality on achievement gain. School Effectiveness and School Improvement,18(2), 191–208.

Topping, K. J., & Sanders, W. L. (2000). Teacher effectiveness and computer assessment of reading:

Relating value added and learning information system data. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 11(3), 305–337.

Ülper, H. (2011). The Motivational Factors for Reading in Terms of Students. Educational Sciences: Theory And

Practice, 11(2), 954-960. Retrieved from

Walczyk, J., Marsiglia, C., Johns, A., & Bryan, K. (2004). Children's Compensations for Poorly Automated Reading Skills. Discourse Processes, 37(1), 47-66. 10.1207/s15326950dp3701_3

Wang, J. H.-Y., & Guthrie, J. (2004). Modeling the Effects of Intrinsic Motivation, Amount of Reading, and Past Reading Achievement on text Comprehension between U.S. and Chinese Students. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from

What Works Clearinghouse. (2010). Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI). US Department of Education: Institute of Education Sciences.

What Works Clearinghouse. (2016). WWC Intervention Report: Accelerated Reader. US Department of Education: Institute of Education Sciences.

Wigfield, A., & Guthrie, J. T. (1997). Relations Of Children's Motivation For Reading To The Amount And Breadth Or Their Reading. Retrieved July 1, 2014, from

Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. (2000). Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 68-81.

Winfree, L. (2013, December ). Reading Motivation and Engagement at a Rural Georgia High School. doi:Order No. 3599489

Wolf , M., & Tami , K.-C. (2001). Reading Fluency And Its Intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading 5(3), 211–239

Yovanoff, P., Duesbery, L., Alonzo , J., & Tindal, G. (2005, September ). Grade-Level Invariance of a Theoretical Causal Structure Predicting Reading Comprehension With Vocabulary and Oral Reading Fluency. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 24: 4–12. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3992.2005.00014.x



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.