Revisiting the Tenets of Critical Pedagogy in Postmethod Pedagogy to Highlight the Concept of Intellectualism

Siavash Zokaeieh, Ebrahim Fakhri Alamdari


Postmethod pedagogy and critical pedagogy have influential roles in education and language teaching. A number of practitioners may claim to instruct based on the tenets of postmethod pedagogy, however, they may not be entirely aware of the oppositional intention and dynamicity of this model. This article aims at revisiting the tenets and constructing elements of critical pedagogy and Freire’s point of view vis-a-vis postmethod pedagogy and Kumaravadivelu’s developed model to enlighten the open-mindedness and dynamic perceptions of these interwoven approaches. Furthermore, some criticisms towards critical pedagogy and postmethod pedagogy are brought into consideration for better understanding of the relevance and the weaknesses. It is hoped that by bringing these two notions, teachers especially those who wish to use postmethod pedagogy in their setting become more aware of the intellectual priorities of critical pedagogy and postmethod pedagogy such as moving from banking model of education, absence of bias and deviation from predetermined and fixed frameworks in the classrooms.


Critical pedagogy, Postmethod pedagogy, Intellectualism, Tenets, Criticism

Full Text:



Ahmadian, M., & Erfan Rad, S. (2014). Postmethod era and glocalized langauge curriculum: A fresh burden on language teachers. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5(3), 592-598.

Akbari, R. (2007). Reflections on reflections: A critical appraisal of reflective practices in L2 teacher education. System, 35, 192-207.

Akbari, R. (2008). Postmethod discourse and practice. TESOL Quarterly, 42(4), 641-652.

Auerbach, E. (1990). Making meaning, making change: A guide to participatory curriculum development for adult ESL and family literacy. . Boston: University of Massachusetts.

Barjesteh, H., Alipour, B., Vaseghi, R. (2013). Critical pedaogy: Imporving Iranian EFL Learner's reading

comprehension ability through CP strategies. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 3(3), 335

Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bell, D. M. (2003). Method and Postmethod. TESOL Quarterly, 37(2), 325-336.

Breuing, M. (2011). Problematizing critical pedagogy. International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 3(3), 2-23.

Brown, H. (2002). English language teaching in the "post-method" era: Toward better diagnosis, treatment, and assessment. In J. C. Richards, & W. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp. 9-18). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chege, M. (2009). Literacy and hegemony: Critical pedagogy vis-a-vis contending paradigms. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21(2), 228-238.

Day, R. (2006). Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawaii Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1-13.

Delpit, L. D. (1988). The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people's children. Harward Educational Review, 58(3), 281-298.

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education . New York: Macmillan.

Dornyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics . Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Duncan-Andrade, J. M. R., & Morrell, E. (2008). The art of critical pedagogy: Possibilities for moving from theory to practice in urban schools. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Fendler, L. (2003). Teacher reflection in a hall of mirrors: Historical influences and political reverberations. Educational Research, 32, 16-25.

Florence, N. (2011). Immigrants teachers, American students: Cultural differences, cultural disconnections . New York : Macmillan .

Freire, P. (1970). Pedogogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum Books .

Hashemi, S. M. (2011). (Post)-methodism: Possibility of the imposible? Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(1), 137-145.

Hooks, B. (1988). Talking back: Thinking feminist. Toronto: Between the Lines.

Hooks, B. (2000). Feminism is for everybody: Passionate politics. Cambridge: South End Press.

Huda, M. E. (2013). Post-method pedagogy and ELT in Bangladesh. Global Journal of Human Social Science Linguistics & Education, 13(7), 7-14.

Kincheloe, J. L. (2008). Knowledge and Critical Pedagogy . Montreal: Springer Science .

Kumaravadivelu, B. (1994). The postmethod condition: Emerging strategies for second/foreign language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 28(1), 27-48.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding language teaching:From method to postmethod. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles inlanguage teacheing . Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2011). Key concepts in language learning and language education. In J. Simpson (Ed.),

Routledge handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 155-170). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Leonardo, Z. (2002). The souls of white folk: Critical pedagogy, whitness studies, and globalization discourse. Race Ethnicity and Education, 5(1), 29-50.

Loughran, J. J. (2002). Effective reflective practice in search of meaning in learning about teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(1), 33-43.

Monchinski, T. (2008). Critical Pedagogy and the Everyday Classroom. New York: Springer.

Naseri Kimavand, P., Hessamy, G. R., & Hemmati, F. (2016). Postmethod education: Its applicability and challenges in Iran. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 6(1), 21-34.

Nation, I. S. P. & Macalister, J . (2010). Language curriculum design. New York: Routledge .

Ornstein, A. C. (2011). Philosophy as a basis for curriculum decisions. In A. C. Ornstein, E. F. Pajak, & S. B. Ornstein (Eds.), Contemporary issues in curriculum (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Pennycook, A. (2001). Critical applied linguistics: A critical introduction. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Popkewitz, T., & Brennan, M. (1998). Restructuring of social and political theory in education: Foucault and a social epistemology of school practices. Educational Theory, 47(3), 3-38.

Razmjoo, S. A., Ranjbar, H. & Hoomanfard, H. M. (2013). On the familiarity of the Iranian EFL teachers and

learners with postmethod and its realiziation. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 4(1), 1-12

Richards, J. C. (1990). “Byound methods.” In J. C. Richards, The language teaching matri: Curriculum, methodology, and materials (pp.35-45). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rivers, W. M. (1968). Teaching Forign-Language Skills (2nd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago.

Shor, I. (1992). Empowering education: critical teaching for social change (1st ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Stern, H. H. (1983). Fundamental concepts of language teaching . Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Tasnimi, M. (2014). The role of teacher in postmethod era. Express, an International Journal of Multi Disciplinary Research, 1(3), 1-8.

Urban, W. J. (2013). Anti-progressivism in education: Past and present. International Journal of Progressive Education, 9(1), 14-24.

Watson, G., & Glaser, E. (2002). Critical thinking appraisal. London: The Psychological Corporation.

Widdoson, H. G. (1990). Aspects of language teaching . Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Xu, L. (2012). The role of teachers beliefs in the language teaching- learning process. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(7), 1397-1402.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2021 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.