“Flexibility, Compassion, and Support” – A Study on Multilayer Mitigation Effects on Pedagogy and Resilience in Thai Classroom, June-September 2022

Jyrki Loima


This qualitative study analyzed pedagogical effects of multilayer mitigation in a Thai classroom. The triangulated data set were confidential, comprising teachers’ voluntary anonymous information, pedagogical views and opinions, respectively. First, pupils’ low absence rates enabled pedagogical focus on learning losses, which were mainly skills. The second effect was related to assessment. None of the teachers mentioned test results as learning loss indicators but regarded learning and qualified assessment as dynamic processes. An interesting dilemma was the learning loss measurements by non-pedagogical experts. Mostly those were presented as test scores, working hour counts, or annual formalities. However, optimized learning strategies’ research had existed for decades, being responded better by these pupils. The third effect was the improved resilience of pupils and caretakers. Initially worried parents turned relieved. Resilience fostered the intrinsic motivation of all. When compared to some countries, firmer resilience made the difference in learning loss endurance for this group. “All-inclusive” mitigation had given families meaningful support. They shared visions of community roles, mediated by teachers and school management. The latter were backed by epidemiologists and medical experts. Further studies should discuss schools in a longer timeframe. External, quantified test scores without in-depth pedagogical analyses seem outdated by the early fourth pandemic year.


Pedagogy, Assessment, Resilience, Onsite Classroom, Covid-19, Multilayer Mitigation

Full Text:



Almeida, F., & Carneiro, P. (2021). Challenges of privacy in e-learning in the context of COVID-19. In S. Jackowicz & I. Sahin (Eds.), Online Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Issues, Benefits, Challenges, and Strategies (pp. 19-38). ISTES Organization.

Anon (2022). Confidential remarks and anonymous answers to a research questionnaire/inquiry [the Data set], unpublished.

Bilen, O. (2021). Ubiquitous learning in the COVID-19 pandemic. In S. Jackowicz & I. Sahin (Eds.), Online Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Issues, Benefits, Challenges, and Strategies (pp. 39-58). ISTES Organization.

Birkelund, J. F., & Karlson, K. B. (2021, November 8). No Evidence of a Major Learning Slide 14 Months into the COVID-19 Pandemic in Denmark. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/md5zn

Bloom, B., Englehart, M., Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. Longmans, Green.

Brown, N., Te Riele, K., Shelley, B., & Woodroffe, J. (2020). Learning at home during COVID-19: Effects on vulnerable young Australians. Independent Rapid Response Report. Hobart, Australia: Peter Underwood Centre for Educational Attainment, University of Tasmania. https://apo.org.au

Busetto, L., Wick, W., & Gumbinger, C. (2020). How to use and assess qualitative research methods. Neurological Research and Practice, 2(14). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42466-020-00059-z

Chenowith, N.H. (2014). Culturally Responsive Pedagogy and Cultural Scaffolding in Literacy Education. The Ohio Reading Teacher, 44(35).

Chernozhukov, V., Kasahara, H., & Schrimpf, P. (2021). The association of opening K–12 schools with the spread of COVID-19 in the United States: County-level panel data analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(42). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2103420118

Cleveland Clinic (2020, November 20). Layers of safety: Reason’s Swiss Cheese Model. https://consultqd.clevelandclinic.org/how-to-talk-to-your-patients-about-covid-19-precautions

Cohen, S., Chakravarthy, S., Bharathi, S., Badri, N., & Park, C.-Y. (2022). Potential economic impact of covid-19 related school closures. ABD economics working paper series, No. 657(2-8). http://dx.doi.org/10.22617/WPS220197-2

Crawford, N. (2020). Supporting student wellbeing during COVID-19: Tips from regional and remote Australia. National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education. https://www.ncsehe.edu.au/student-wellbeing-COVID-19-regional-remote-australia

Darling-Hammond, K., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2022). The civil rights road to deeper learning: Five essentials for equity. Teachers College Press.

Darling-Hammond, L., Edgerton, A.K., Truong, N., & Cookson Jnr, P.W. (2020). Restarting and reinventing school: Learning in the time of COVID and beyond. Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Restart_Reinvent_Schools_COVID_Priority2_Distance_Learning.pdf

Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). New policies for 21st century demands. (Interviewed by J. Bellanca). In J. Bellanca, & R. Brandt (Eds.), 21st Century Skills: Rethinking How Students Learn (pp. 33-50). Solution Tree Press.

Diederichs, M., Ewijk, van R., Isphording, I. E., & Pestel, N. (2022). Schools under mandatory testing can mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119(26). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2201724119

ECDC (August 25, 2022). Covid and other respiratory viruses: mitigating their spread when children return to school. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/news-events/covid-19-and-other-respiratory-viruses-mitigating-their-spread-children-return-school

Elias, M. J., & Haynes, N. M. (2008). Social competence, social support, and academic achievement in minority, low-income, urban elementary school children. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 474–495. https://doi.org/10.1037/1045-3830.23.4.474

Fossey, E., Harvey, C., McDermott, F., & Davidson, L. (2002). Understanding and evaluating qualitative research. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36 (6), 717–732. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1614.2002.01100.x

Gardner, H. (2010). Five Minds for the Future. In J. Bellanca, & R. Brandt (Eds.), 21st Century Skills: Rethinking How Students Learn (pp.9-32). Solution Tree Press.

Goad, J. (n.d.). COVID preventation: A Swiss cheese model. https://www.chapman.edu/research/ask-the-experts-townhall/jgoad_ate_presentation.pdf (September 20, 2022)

Grewenig, E., Lergetporer, P., Werner, K., Woessmann, L., and Zierow, L. (2021). COVID-19 and educational inequality: How school closures affect low-and high-achieving -students. European Economic Review, 140, 103920. https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/13820/covid-19-and-educational-inequality-how-school-closures-affect-low-and-high-achieving-students

Jackowicz, S., & Sahin, I. (Eds.). (2021). Online Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Issues, Benefits, Challenges, and Strategies. ISTES Organization. (PDF). https://www.istes.org/books/c439edb6b376b840ce0300ad44b6a9c1.pdf

Jiao, W. Y., Lin N. W., Juan L., Shuan F. F., Fu Y. J., Pettoello-Mantovani, M., & Somekh, E. (2020). Behavioral and Emotional Disorders in Children during the COVID-19 Epidemic. The Journal of Pediatrics. 221(1), 264-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.03.013

Kaban, A. (2021). Use of learning management systems in the COVID-19 pandemic. In S. Jackowicz & I. Sahin (Eds.), Online Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Issues, Benefits, Challenges, and Strategies (pp. 81-98). ISTES Organization.

Kuitunen, I., & Renko, M. (2021). Lessons to learn from the current pandemic for future non-pharmaceutical interventions against the respiratory syncytial virus – nationwide register-study in Finland. Infectious diseases. 53(6) 476-478. https://doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2021.1894351

Larson, L. C., & Northern Miller, T. (2011). 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 47(3), 121-123, DOI: 10.1080/00228958.2011.10516575

Loima, J. (2021). Equity vs. Ethic Literacy – Socio-Educational Dilemma in the Case of Pandemic Finland, Autumn 2020. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 9(2), 2-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.9n.2p.2

Loima, J., & Vibulphol, J. (2014). Internal interest of external performing? A Qualitative study on motivation and learning of 9th graders in Thailand basic education. Journal of Education and Learning, 3(3), 194-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jel.v3n3p194

Maldonado, J. E., & De Witte, K. (2022). The effect of school closures on standardised student test outcomes. British Educational Research Journal, 48, 49-94. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3754

Maslow, A. H. (1958). A Dynamic Theory of Human Motivation. In C. L. Stacey & M. DeMartino (Eds.), Understanding human motivation (pp. 26–47). Howard Allen Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1037/11305-004

Medina, J. (2022). Group agential epistemic injustice: Epistemic disempowerment and critical defanging of group epistemic agency. Philosophical Issues, 32, 320–334. https://doi.org/10.1111/phis.12221

Pearlman, B. (2010). Designing New Learning Environments to Support 21st Century Skills. In J. Bellanca, & R. Brandt (Eds.), 21st Century Skills: Rethinking How Students Learn (pp. 117-138). Solution Tree Press.

Prime, H., Wade, M., & Browne, D. T. (2020). Risk and resilience in family well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. American Psychologist, 75(5), 631–643. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000660

Reason, J. (2000). Human error: models and management. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 320(7237), 768–770. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7237.768

Tomasik, M. J., Helbling, L. A., & Moser, U. (2021). Educational gains of in‐person vs. distance learning in primary and secondary schools: A natural experiment during the COVID‐19 pandemic school closures in Switzerland. International Journal of Psychology, 56(4), 566-576. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12728

Vlachos, J., Hertegård, E., & Svaleryd, H. B. (2021). The effects of school closures on SARS-CoV-2 among parents and teacher. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(9). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2020834118

Vogel, G. (2021, February 15). Keeping schools open without masks or quarantines doubled Swedish teachers’ COVID-19 risk. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/02/keeping-schools-open-without-masks-or-quarantines-doubled-swedish-teachers-COVID-19

Voogt, J., & Pareja Roblin, N. (2012). A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: Implications for national curriculum policies. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 44(3), 299-321. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2012.668938

Whitley, J., Beauchamp M. H., & Brown, C. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on the learning and achievement of vulnerable Canadian children and youth. FACETS. 6, 1693-1713. https://doi.org/10.1139/facets-2021-0096

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.11n.1p.2


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.