Comparison of a Student and a Professional Writer’s Literacy Competence as Reflected in their Business E-mails

Sri Rahayu Zees, Mursid Saleh, - Warsono, Rudi Hartono


This research is an evaluation study using context, input, process, and product (CIPP) evaluation model to analyze whether the literacy developed in educational institution has met the acceptable literacy level used in the workplace. Two business E-mails about sales written by a professional writer and a student were analyzed to investigate the contexts and products. Input analysis was carried out on the data from observations and texts while process analyis was performed on the data elicited from observations. All four analyses were also supported by data elicited through interviews from both writers. The results of CIPP analysis indicated both similarities and differences between the two E-mails which reflected the literacy levels of both writers. In context analysis, both E-mails used mixed literacy types which were realized in 11 language aspects. The differences were in the cognitive process involved in the professional writer’s performance that showed a high literacy level while the student’s E-mail presented a low to medium literacy level. According to the input analysis results, both writers used most of the available designs as intangible resources except for style and declarative knowledge. There were differences in using the instructional materials and people as tangible resources. In process analysis, although there were similarities in some steps of knowledge building phase; however, some differences were still found between the two writers in this phase and in the phases of modelling, joint construction and independent construction of the text. The results of product analysis showed that the professional writer’s E-mail presented a good to excellent literacy level while the literacy level of the student’s E-mail ranged between inadequate and fair. The differences indicate that the literacy developed in educational institution does not meet the requirements of literacy used genuinely.


Literacy, Business E-mail, CIPP Evaluation Model

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