The Effect of Dynamic Assessment on L2 Grammar Acquisition by Iranian EFL Learners

Mojtaba Kamali, Mehdi Abbasi, Firooz Sadighi


This study investigated the effect of dynamic Assessment (DA) on the acquisition of L2 grammar by EFL learners. The focus was on teaching Conditional Type II, or Unreal Conditional, which is a difficult structure for language learners to acquire. To this end, two intact classes of intermediate EFL learners, each consisting of 23 male students were assigned to control and experimental groups. They were pre-tested and post-tested (immediately and delayed post-test) using a written grammaticality judgment task. Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was run to analyze the data. The results revealed that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group (p<0.05) on both immediate and delayed post-tests. The findings point to the advantage of implementation of DA in L2 grammar instruction in classroom contexts.


Dynamic Assessment, L2 Grammar, Sociocultural Theory, Mediation, Second Language Acquisition

Full Text:



Ableeva, R. (2008). The effects of dynamic assessment on L2 listening comprehension. In J. P. Lantolf, & M. E. Poehner (Eds.), Sociocultural theory and the teaching of second languages (pp. 57-86). London: Equinox.

Ableeva, R. (2010). Dynamic assessment of listening comprehension in second language learning. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation), The Pennsylvania State University.

Aljaafreh, R., & Lantolf, J. P. (1994). Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the zone of proximal development. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 436-483.

Anton, M. (2003). Dynamic assessment of advanced foreign language learners. Paper presented at the American Association of Applied Linguistics, Washington, D. C.

Anton, M. (2009). Dynamic assessment of advanced second language learners. Foreign Language Annals, 42(3), 576-598.

Bavali, M., Yamini, M., & Sadighi, F. (2011). Dynamic Assessment in Perspective: Demarcating Dynamic and Non-dynamic Boundaries. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(4), 895-902. doi:10.4304/jltr.2.4

Birjandi, P., Daftarifard, P., & Lange, R. (2011). The effects of dynamic assessment on Rasch item and person hierarchies in second language testing. International Journal of Language Studies, 5, 125-140.

Brown, A., & Ferrara, R. A. (1985). Diagnosing zones of proximal development. In J.V. Wertsch (Ed.), Culture, Communication and Cognition. Vygotskian Perspectives (p. 300). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Celce-Murcia, M., & Larsen Freeman, D. (1999). The grammar book: An ESL/EFL teacher's course (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Heinlle & Heinle.

Dorfler, T., Golke, S., & Artlet, C. (2009). Dynamic assessment and its potential for the assessment of reading competence. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 35, 77-82.

Haywood, H. C., & Lidz, S. C. (2007). Dynamic assessment in practice:Clinical and educational applications. Camridge: Camridge University Press.

Iran Language Institue (2006). The ILI English Series: Intermediate 1 student's book, Tehran: Kanoonchap.

Kozulin, A., & Garb, E. (2001). Dynamic assessment of EFL text comprehension of at-risk students. School Psychology International, 23, 112-127.

Lantolf, J. P., & Poehner, M. E. (2004). Dynamic assessment of L2 development: bringing the past into the future. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1, 49–72.

Lidz, C., & Elliott, J. (2000). Dynamic assessment: prevailing models and applications. Advances in cognition and educational practice, 6, Elsevier Science Inc.

Lidz, C. S. (1991). Practitioner’s guide to dynamic assessment. New York: Guilford

Lidz, C. S., & Gindis, B. (2003). Dynamic assessment of the evolving cognitive functions in children. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. S. Ageyev, & S. M. Miller(Eds.). Vygotsky's educational theory in cultural context.

Luria, A. R. (1961). Study of the abnormal child. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry: A Journal of Human Behavior, 31, 1-16.

Lussier, C. M., & Swanson, H. L. (2005). Dynamic assessment: A selective synthesis of the experimental literature.In G. M. van der Aalsvoort, W. C. M. Resting, & A. J. J. M. Ruijssenaars (eds.). Learning potential assessment and cognitive training: Actual research and perspectives in theory building and methodology, New York: Elsevier, 65-87.

Naeni, J., & Duvall, E. (2012). Dynamic assessment and the impact on English language learners’ reading comprehension performance. Language Testing in Asia, 2(2), 1-22.

Nassaji, H., & Swain, M. (2000). A Vygotskian perspective on corrective feedback in L2: The effect of random versus negotiated help on the learning of English articles Language Awareness, 9, 503-517.

Poehner, M. E. (2005). Dynamic assessment of oral proficiency among advanced L2 learners of French. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation), The Pennsylvania State University.

Poehner, M. E. (2008). Dynamic assessment: A Vygotskian approach to understanding and promoting L2 development. US: Springer.

Poehner, M. E. (2009). Group dynamic assessment: Mediation for the L2 classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 43(3), 471-491.

Rosa, E., & Leow, R. P. (2004). Awareness, different learning conditions, and second language development. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 269-292.

Sadeghi, K., & Khanahmadi, F. (2011). Dynamic assessment of L2 grammar of Iranian EFL learners: The role of mediated learning experience. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(2), 931-936.

Tavakoli, H. (2012). A Dictionary of Language Acquisition. Tehran: Rahnama Press.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Williams, M., & Burden, L. R. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: A social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Xiaoxiao, L., & Yan, L. (2010). A case study of dynamic assessment in EFL process writing. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistis, 33(1), 24-40.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.