The Effect of Recast on Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Achievement

Samira Zabihi


Developing English language learners’ writing skill has always been a concern in the ELT profession.This study presents the findings of an investigation on the effect of recast as a major type of indirect corrective feedback on English language learners’ writing skill. For the purpose of this study, a total number of 20 advanced language learners enrolled in writing classes were randomly selected from a language institute in Shiraz, Iran. The treatment involved assigning some topics to learners to write about. The compositions were collected and corrected after the fifth composition by the teacher using recast strategy as the major corrective feedback method. The data collected during this 5-session treatment based the pre-test of this study. Then the learners' original compositions and the corrected versions were returned to them. The degree of accuracy and also the number and types of corrected errors observed in three compositions assigned later, which served as the post-test of this study, determined the degree of effectiveness of this type of indirect error correction technique on the development of writing skill.  The results revealed that recast had a positive impact on decreasing errors. The comparison of the pre-test and post-test scores shows that recasts significantly assisted in increasing accuracy of writing.



Recast, corrective feedback, writing

Full Text:



Abedi, R., Latifi, M., & Moinzadeh, A. (2010). The effect of error correction vs. error detection on Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners’ writing achievement. English Language Teaching, 3(4), 168-174.

Ayoun, D. (2001). The role of negative and positive feedback in the second language acquisition of the "passe compose" and the "imparfait." Modern Language Journal, 85(2), 226-243.

Chandler, J. (2003). The efficiency of various kinds of error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, 267- 296.

Choi, M.Y. (2000). Effects of recasts on irregular past tense verb morphology in Web-chat. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu. Available from Wiley online library

Cohen, A. (1987). Student Processing of Feedback on Their Compositions. In: A.L. Weden, & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner Strategies in Language Learning (pp. 57-69). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Dasse-Askildson, V. (2008). How learners’ affective variables impact their perception of recasts in the acquisition of grammatical gender in L2 French. Arizona Working Papers on SLA and Teaching,15,1-35.

Degteva, O. (2011). Impact of recasts on the accuracy in EFL learners’ writing. Norderstedt: Germany.

Doughty, C., Varela, E. (1998). Communicative focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 114-138). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved May 13, 2011, from Questia database: htpp://

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: OUP.

Errel, O. S., & Bulut, D. (2007). Error treatment in L2 writing: A comparative study of direct and indirect coded feedback in Turkish EFL context. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi Sayı, 22, 1, 397-415.

Ferris, D.R. (2002).Treatment of Error in Second Language Student Writing. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

Ferris, D. R. (2003). Response to student writing: Implications for second language students. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ferris, D. R., & Roberts, B. (2001). Error feedback in L2 writing classes: How explicit does it need to be? Journal of Second Language Writing, 10(3), 161-184.

Gass, S. M. (2003). Input and Interaction. In C. Doughty, and M. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 224-255). New York: Blackwell.

Hamouda, A. (2011). A study of students and teachers' preferences and attitudes towards correction of classroom written errors in Saudi EFL context. English Language Teaching, 4(3), 128-141.

Ishida, M. (2004). Effects of Recasts on the Acquisition of the Aspectual Form -te i-(ru) by Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language. Language Learning, 54, 311-394. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00257.x

Krashen, S. (2003). Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use: The Taipei Lectures. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Lee, I. (2004). Error correction in L2 secondary writing classrooms: The case of Hong Kong. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13(4), 285-312.

Leki, I. (1991). The preferences of ESL students for error correction in college-level writing classes. Foreign Language Annals, 24(3), 203-218.

Loewen, S. (2004). Uptake in incidental focus on form in meaning-focused ESL lessons. Language Learning, 54, 153-188.

Long, M. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 413–468). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Long, M. H. (2007). Problems in SLA. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lyster, R. (1998). Recasts, repetition, and ambiguity in L2 classroom discourse. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 51-81.

Lyster, R. (2004). Different effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 399–432.

Mackey, A. (2006). Feedback, noticing and instructed second language learning. AppliedLinguistics, 27(3), 405-430.

Mackey, A., S. Gass, and K. McDonough. (2000). How do learners perceive interaction feedback? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 471-498.

Mackey, A., and Philp, J. (1998). Conversational interaction and second language development: Recasts, responses, and red herrings? Modern Language Journal, 82, 338-356.

Maftoon, P., Shirazi, M. A., and Daftarifard, P. (2011). The effect of recast vs. self-correction on writing accuracy: The role of awareness. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2(1), 17-28.

Nicholas, H., Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. (2001). Recasts as Feedback to Language Learners. Language Learning, 51(4), 719-758.

Ortega, L., Long, M. H. (1997). The effects of models and recasts on the acquisition of object topicalization and adverb placement in L2 Spanish. Spanish Applied Linguistics, I, 65-86.

Richards, Jack C., & Renandya, Willy A. (2002). Methodology in Language Teaching: an Anthology of Current Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sharwood, M. (1993). Second language learning: Theoretical foundations. London: Longman.

Sheen, Y. (2004). Corrective feedback and learner uptake in communicative classrooms across instructional settings. Language Teaching Research, 8(3), 263-300.

Sheen, Y. (2006). Exploring the relationship between characteristics of recasts and learner uptake. Language Teaching Research, 10 (4), 361-392.

Sheen, Y. (2007). The effects of corrective feedback, language aptitude, and learner attitudes on the acquisition of English articles. In A. Mackey (Eds.), Conversational Interaction in Second Language Acquisition: A Collection of Empirical Studies (pp. 301-322). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sivaji, K. (2012). The effect of direct and indirect error correction feedback on the grammatical accuracy of ESL writing of undergraduates. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(8), 91-113.

Truscott, J. (1999). Noticing in Second Language acquisition: A critical review. Second Language Research, 14(2), 103-135.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.