Some Major Steps to Translation and Translator

Mohammad Reza Hojat Shamami


This work is an overview of the main issues at the core of theorizing translation practice and the features of a good translator or how to be a good translator and of course what are the Skills to become a Freelance Translator and Translation process. In this world of science and technology there is knowledge explosion every day. This knowledge which is generally written in the English language needs to be transmitted in various languages so that people who do not know how to speak and write the original language can get the knowledge necessary for industrial development and technological innovation to keep up with the rest of the world. To transmit this knowledge effectively, there is a need for competent translators in various languages.



Translation, Translator, SL, Accommodation, Text

Full Text:



Abangma, S.N. (1987). Modes in Denya Discourse. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics: Dallas. 279P.

Anderson, J. M. (1971). The Grammar of Case. Towards a Localistic Theory. Cambridge: University Press. 219p.

Antal, L. (1963). Interpretation and Transformation. Linguistics. NY: University Press.

Ballard, D. (1971).The Deep and Surface structure Grammar of interclausal Relations. Dordrecht.Holland.118p.

Benjamin, W (1992). The Task of the Translator, Illuminations. Harry Zohn.Fontana.

Bloomfield, L. (1993). Language and Translation. New York: Henry Holt and Co.

Brislin, R. W. (1976). Back translation for cross – cultural research. New York: Garden Press.216P.

Brower, R. A. (1959). On Translation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bunkowske, E. W. (1956). Religious Words! Which and Where? The Bible Translator. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 231P.

Cau, S. C. ( 1983). The Nature and Limitations of Shakespeare translation. New York: Academic Press.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crease, R. (1997). Hermeneutics and the Natural Sciences. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Crystal, D. (1973). Current Trends in translation Theory. The Bible Translator. Prague. Academia publishing House. 329P.

Di, P. (1968). Contrastive Analysis and the Notions of Deep and Surface Structure. Washington. DC.

Dollerrup, C. (1992). Teaching Translation and Interpretation. Amsterdam and Philadelphia. John Benjamin Publishing Company.

Fillmore, C. J. (1986). The Case of Case. Universals in Linguistic Theory. New York. Holt Rinehart and Winston.

Gilson, P. (1997). Image and Logic. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Labov, W. (1972). Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 344P.

Nida, E. A. (1969). Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden. Brill. 218 p.

Richard, A. (1953). Toward a Theory of Translating Studies in Chinese Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 262P.

Steiner, G. (1975). After Babel aspects of Language and Translation. London: Oxford University Press. 507P.

Wittgensteinl, P. (1953). New York. Macmillan. Oxford. Blackwell. 232P.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.