Study of Socratic Irony and Romantic Irony in Khayyam, Abol-ala and Schopenhauer’s Quatrains

Ahmad Forouzanfar, Shahla Khalilollahi, Maryam Mousavi


In this article we are determined to review Socratic irony, romantic and ironic structures of Khayyam's quatrains and the ones attributed to him and explain the place of Khayyam as an ironist among other thinkers of the world, according to the meaning of romantic irony and Socratic irony in his quatrains. Irony is the recognition of the fact that the world itself is sick and only an ambivalent attitude can understand its paradoxical totality.  Ashleh Goal believes that irony in this sense, according to its nature, is not moderating, but it means that it is endless and self-looking like Socratic wisdom. Irony is related to an aspect of speech in which the meaning of the word is placed in contrast to the literal meaning of the word.  In fact, an individual mentions something which is not what he or she actually meant, or is not all of what he or she meant.  Examples of these meanings can be seen in Socrates' dialogues, which one type of irony is called Socratic irony and the other type is romantic irony.  This term was used in a more complicated meaning, which was our purpose in this article, by the German romantic theorists in the late eighteenth century A.D.  In romantic irony, the offended artist of the events of life portrays an excerpt from reality, from the perspective of his knowledge as Khayyam created a school and after him a number of Iran's poets continued it.  He constantly reminds the human suffering by offering images of the world inversion.


Romantic Irony, Socratic Irony, Khayyam, Abol-ala and Schopenhauer

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