TELL (Technology-enhanced Language Learning) in Iranian High Schools: A Panacea for Emotional and Motivational Detriments

Afsaneh Ghanizadeh, Azam Razavi, Akram Hosseini


Recent expansions in technological tools are shifting the direction of foreign-language education. A plethora of EFL research studies suggested that the benefits of TELL (technology-enhanced language learning) embrace a wide array of cognitive, motivational, and emotional attributes. English language teaching in Iran has recently undergone a host of rapid changes. The most apparent change was that the traditional grammar-based instruction left its place to communicative-oriented approaches. As a result, teachers needed extra aids to provide learners with the desired environments and foster exposure to authentic materials. In this regard, multimedia techniques (MTs) offer wide range of facilities in high speed and effective information processing. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible impact of MTs in high schools on students’ L2 learning attitudes, anxiety, and language proficiency. To do so, the researchers adopted a mixed-methods design integrating experimental and interview analyses. The sample of the study consisted of 124 female students from Motahhareh high school in Mashhad, a city in Northeast of Iran. Twelve items out of Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self- system scale were picked to measure attitudes to L2 learning and L2 anxiety. The Babel test was employed for gauging participants’ language proficiency. The sample was divided into two experimental and two control groups. The participants in experimental and control groups were provided with the same materials and instruction. The point of difference lay in the mode of presenting the materials in experimental group, i.e. via multimedia techniques. In the second phase, a semi-structured interview was conducted with a number of students in experimental groups to delve into their attitudes and feedbacks concerning MT-based instruction. The results indicated that there were statistically significant differences in students’ L2 learning attitudes, anxiety, and language proficiency in favor of the experimental group. In the light of the obtained results, the study presented a number of practical and accessible recommendations for implementing multimedia in teaching English.


Multimedia techniques, Mixed-methods design, Language proficiency, Attitudes, Anxiety

Full Text:



Acha, J. (2009). The effectiveness of multimedia programmes in children’s vocabulary learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 23–31.

Al-Seghayer, K. (2001). The effect of multimedia annotation modes on L2 vocabulary acquisition: A comparative study. Language Learning and Technology, 5(1), 202-232.

Astleitner, H., & Hufnagl, M. (2003). The effects of situation-outcome-expectancies and of ARCS-strategies on self-regulated learning with Web-lectures. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 12(4), 361-376.

Atiyyat, I. (1995). The effect of computer assisted instruction upon tenth grade students' mastering of English vocabulary. Unpublished Masteral thesis. University of Jordan, Jordan.

Azizizadeh, S. (2007).Review of effectiveness of creativity training on improvement of entrepreneurial attitude in unemployed people in Tehran City. Unpublished Masteral thesis, Field of occupational consultation.

Bacon, S., & Finnemann, M. (1990).A study of the attitudes, motives, and strategies of university foreign language students and their disposition to authentic oral and written input. The Modern Language Journal, 74, 459-473.

Bagui, S. (1998). Reasons for increased learning using multimedia .Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 7, 3–18.

Brooks, D. W. (1997). Web-teaching: A guide to designing interactive teaching for the World Wide Web. New York: Plenum.

ChanLin, L., Hong, J., Horng, J., Chang, S., & Chu, C. (2006). Factors influencing technology integration in Teachers’ perceptions of the use of multimedia in teaching English in official and non-official language settings teaching: A Taiwanese perspective. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 143(1), 57–68.

Chen, G., & Fu, X. (2003).Effects of multimodal information on learning performance and judgment of learning .Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29(3), 349-362.

Cuban, L. (2001). Teachers and machines: The classroom uses of technology. New York: Longman.

Dale, E. (1969). Audio-visual methods in teaching. New York: Dryden.

David, E., & Dan, B. (2002).A collaborative and interdisciplinary computer animation.The MIT Press Course Leonardo, 35(1), 83-86.

Davis, B. G. (1993). Tools for Teaching. Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco: California.

Dornyei, Z., & Csizer, K. (2002). Some dynamics of language attitudes and motivation: Results of a longitudinal nationwide survey. Applied Linguistics, 23(4), 421-462.

Fadel, C. (2008). Multimodal Learning Through Media: What the Research Says. San Jose, CA: Cisco Systems.

Fletcher, J. D. (2003). Evidence for learning from technology-assisted instruction. In Technology applications in education: A learning view, eds. H. O'Neil. F. Jr. and R. S. Perez, 79–99.

Ghanizadeh, A., & Heidarnejad, T. (2015). A cross-contextual analysis of Iranian EFL teachers' attitudes and perceptions of critical thinking. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 4(4), 27-38.

Ghanizadeh, A., & Jahedizadeh, S. (2015). An exploration of EFL learners' perceptions of classroom activities and their achievement goal orientations .International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 4(3), 33-45.

Ghanizadeh, A., & Razavi, A. (2015).The impact of using multimedia in English high school classes on students’ language achievement and goal orientation. International Journal of Research Studies in Educational Technology, 4(2), 31-42.

Ghanizadeh, A., & Razavi, A. (2016). Teachers’ perceptions of the use of multimedia in teaching English in official and non-official language learning settings. International Journal of Research Studies in Educational Technology, 18(2), 24-33.

Ghanizadeh, A., Razavi, A., & Jahedizadeh, S. (2015). Technology-enhanced language learning: A review of resources and upshots. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 54, 73-87.

Ghanizadeh, A., & Rostami, S. (2015). A Dörnyei-inspired study on second language motivation: a cross-comparison analysis in public and private contexts. Psychological Studies, 60 (3), 292–301, DOI: 10.1007/s12646-015-0328-4.

Hahne, A. K., Benndorf, R., Frey, P., & Herzig, S. (2005). Attitude towards computer-based learning: determinants as revealed by a controlled interventional study. Medical Education, 39(9), 935-943.

Hardré, P., Sullivan, D., & Crowson, H. (2009). Student characteristics and motivation in rural high schools. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 24(16), 1-19.

Harper, B., & Hedberg, J. (1997).Creating motivating interactive learning environments: A constructivist view. Paper presented at ASCILITE December, 7-10.

Hanson-Smith, E. (1999). Classroom practice: Using multimedia for input and interaction in CALL environments. In E. Hanson-Smith (Ed.), CALL environments: research, practice, and critical issues (pp. 189-215). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

Hashemi, M., & Najafi, V. (2011) Using blogs in English language writing classes. International Journal of Academic Research, 3 (4), 599-604.

Hayati, F., & Mohemdi, A. (2010). The Effect of films with and without subtitles on listening comprehension of EFL intermediate students. International Journal of Instructional Media, 37(3), 301-313.

Horwitz, E. K. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement .Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 112-126.

Hoskins, S. L., & van Hooff, J. C. (2005) Motivation and ability: which students use online learning and what influence does it have on their achievement? British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2), 177-192.

Huang, C. (2012). The study of the efficiency of applying animation multimedia for assistance of teaching of physics and chemistry in junior high school. Unpublished Master’s dissertation, Changhua University Hsinchu, Taiwan.

JafariHajati, O. (2006). Assessment of the design of smart schools in high schools of Tehran. Masteral thesis, Department of Psychology, University of Teacher Education.

Jahedizadeh, S., Ghanizadeh, A., & Ghonsooly, B. (2016). The role of EFL learners’ demotivation, perceptions of classroom activities, and mastery goal in predicting their language achievement and burnout. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 1-16. DOI 10.1186/s40862-016-0021-8.

Joseph, R., & Nassar, (1995). Dual coding as a possible explanation for the effects of multimedia on learning. Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia .Journal of Language and Literacy, 33(3), 211-239.

Keller, J. M., & Suzuki, K. (2004). Learner motivation and e-Learning design: a multi-nationally validated process. Journal of Educational Media, 29(3), 229-239.

Khodadady, E., & Ghanizadeh, A. (2011). The impact of concept mapping on EFL learners' critical thinking ability. English Language Teaching, 4(4), 49-60.

Kozma, R. (1991). Learning with media. Review of Educational Research, 61, 179–211.

Lafford, P. A., & Lafford, B. A. (1997).Learning language and culture with the Internet. In R. M. Terry (Ed.), Technology-enhanced language learning (pp. XX-XX). Lincolnwood, IL: The National Textbook Company.

Larkin, D., & Simon, H. A. (1987).Why a diagram is (sometimes) worth ten thousand words. Cognitive Science, 11(1), 65.

Lee, L. (2002). Going beyond classroom learning: Acquiring cultural knowledge via online newspapers and intercultural exchanges via online chat rooms. CALICO Journal, 16(2). 110-126.

Lin, H., & Chen, T. (2007). Reading authentic EFL text using visualization and advance organizers in a multimedia learning environment .Language Learning and Technology, 11(3), 83-106.

Margie, J., & Liu, M. (1996).Introducing interactive multimedia to young children: A case study of how two-years-olds interact with the technology .Educational Resources Information center.

Massa, L. J., & Mayer, R. E. (2006). Testing the ATI hypothesis: Should multimedia instruction accommodate verbalizer-visualizer cognitive style? Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 321-336.

Mayer,A.E. Plass, J.L., Chun D.M.&Leutner,D.(1998). Supporting visual and verbal learning preferences in a second-language multimedia learning environment, Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 25-36.

Mayer, A. E. (2003). Elements of a science of e-learning .Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29(3), 297-313.

Mayer, R. E. & Moreno,R. (1998). A split-attention effect in multimedia learning: Evidence for dual processing systems in working memory. Journal of Educational Psychology 90: 312–320.

Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. (2007). Interactive multimodal learning environments. Educational Psychological Review, 19, 309-326.

Mueller, S. M. (1980). Delivering multimedia teaching modules via the Internet. Innovations in Education and Training International, 36(1), 11–16.

Murphy, K. L., Mahoney, S. E., Chen, C. Y., Mendoza-Diaz, N. V. & Yang, X. (2005). A constructivist model of mentoring, coaching, and facilitating online discussion. Distance Education, 26(3) 341–366.

Prensky, C.G. (2001). Modality effects and the structure of short-term verbal memory. Memory & Cognition, 17(4), 398-422.

Pourhosein Gilakjani, A., & Ahmadi, S. M. (2011). Multimedia and its effect on the quality of English language teaching. Culture, English Language Teaching and Literature, 11(1). 14-35.

Ramaiah, C. K. (1998). Multimedia systems in libraries and their applications. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology, 18 (6), 25-40.

Rana, P.S. (2013). Education and the use of technology. Republica The Week, 12.

Razavi, A., Ghanizadeh, A., & Akbari, O. (2016). Teachers’ perceptions of the use of multimedia in teaching English in official and non-official language learning Settings. International Journal of Research Studies in Educational Technology, 5 (1), 91-104.

Rostami, S., Akbari, O., & Ghanizadeh, A. (2015). The effect of smart school programs on EFL reading comprehension in an academic context. International Journal of Research Studies in Educational Technology, 4(1), 1-10.

Shah, C., & Freedman, C. (2003). Teachers discovering computers: Integrating technology and digital media in the classroom (4th Ed.). Boston: Thomson Course Techno.

Smith, S. M., & Woody, P. C. (2000).Interactive effect of multimedia instruction and learning styles .Teaching of Psychology, 27(3), 220-223

Sun, Y., & Dong, O. (2004). An experiment on supporting children's English vocabulary learning in multimedia context. Foreign Languages & Literature, 17(2), 131-147.

Shuell, T. J., & Farber, S. L. (2001). Students’ perceptions of technology use in college courses. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 24, 119-138.

Song, S. H., & Keller, J. M. (2001). Effectiveness of motivationally adaptive computer-assisted instruction on the dynamic aspects of motivation. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(2), 5-22.

Taguchi, T., Magid, M., & Papi, M. (2009). The L2 motivational self system among Japanese, Chinese and Iranian learners of English: A comparative case study. In Z. Dörnyei& E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp.66-97). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Thorton, P., & Dudley, A. (1996). The CALL environment: An alternative to the language lab. CAELL Journal, 7(4), 29-34.

Wang, C. R. (2008). A comparative study on the traditional model of English teaching and multimedia computer aided English teaching. Journal of Hunan First Normal College, 8 (3), 56-58.

Warschauer, M.: (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning: Theory and practice, Modern Language Journal, 81(4), 470–481.

Warschauer, M., & Healey, D. (1998). Computers and language learning: An overview, Language Teaching, 31 (1), 57-71.

Wasley, P. (2006). Underrepresented students benefit most from ‘engagement.’ The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53 (13), 39-

Weyers, J. R. (1999). The effects of authentic video on communicative competence. The Modern Language Journal, 83(3), 339-349.

Woody, J. (2000). Teachers' perceptions of computer needs. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 23(4), 475-496.

Xie, T. (2002). Using Internet relay chat in teaching Chinese. Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium, 19(3), 513-524.

Yang, D. C., & Fang, Y. F. (2008). Promoting sixth graders’ number sense and learning attitudes via technology-based environment. Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), 112-125.

Zafarmand, A., Ghanizadeh, A., & Akbari, O. (2014).a structural equation modeling of EFL learners' goal orientation, meta cognitive awareness, and self-efficacy. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 5 (6), 112-124.

Zemke, Z. Y., & Espinoza, S. (2001). Relationship among computer self-efficacy, attitudes toward computers, and desirability of learning computing skills. Journal of Research and Computing in Education, 30(4), 420-438.

Zhao, Y., & Cziko, G. A. (2001). Teacher adoption of technology: A perceptual control theory perspective. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 5-30.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.