TELL (Technology-enhanced Language Learning) in Iranian High Schools: A Panacea for Emotional and Motivational Detriments

Afsaneh Ghanizadeh, Azam Razavi, Akram Hosseini


Recent expansions in technological tools are shifting the direction of foreign-language education. A plethora of EFL research studies suggested that the benefits of TELL (technology-enhanced language learning) embrace a wide array of cognitive, motivational, and emotional attributes. English language teaching in Iran has recently undergone a host of rapid changes. The most apparent change was that the traditional grammar-based instruction left its place to communicative-oriented approaches. As a result, teachers needed extra aids to provide learners with the desired environments and foster exposure to authentic materials. In this regard, multimedia techniques (MTs) offer wide range of facilities in high speed and effective information processing. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible impact of MTs in high schools on students’ L2 learning attitudes, anxiety, and language proficiency. To do so, the researchers adopted a mixed-methods design integrating experimental and interview analyses. The sample of the study consisted of 124 female students from Motahhareh high school in Mashhad, a city in Northeast of Iran. Twelve items out of Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self- system scale were picked to measure attitudes to L2 learning and L2 anxiety. The Babel test was employed for gauging participants’ language proficiency. The sample was divided into two experimental and two control groups. The participants in experimental and control groups were provided with the same materials and instruction. The point of difference lay in the mode of presenting the materials in experimental group, i.e. via multimedia techniques. In the second phase, a semi-structured interview was conducted with a number of students in experimental groups to delve into their attitudes and feedbacks concerning MT-based instruction. The results indicated that there were statistically significant differences in students’ L2 learning attitudes, anxiety, and language proficiency in favor of the experimental group. In the light of the obtained results, the study presented a number of practical and accessible recommendations for implementing multimedia in teaching English.


Multimedia techniques, Mixed-methods design, Language proficiency, Attitudes, Anxiety

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