The Effect of Note Taking vs. Summarizing Strategy on Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension

Mehri Khavazi, Mandana Yousefi, Naeemeh Kharaghani


This study, specifically, investigated the effect of note taking and summarizing strategies on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension. The study aimed at investigating the effects of note taking and summarizing on listening comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. The participants of the study included 75 female language learners in Bojnord who were homogenized in terms of language proficiency. They were divided into two experimental and onecontrol groups. ANCOVA test was used to analyze the effect of instructing listening strategies on the students’ listening comprehension. The results revealed that both note taking and summarizing strategies were effective in enhancing Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension performance. In addition, it was found that summarizing strategy was more effective than note taking strategy in improving students’listening comprehension. In terms of theoretical implications, the results of the study contribute to the validity of such theories like depth of processing, output hypothesis, and noticing hypothesis.


Note-Taking Strategy, Summarizing Strategy, Listening Comprehension

Full Text:



Atay, D., & Ozbulgan, C. (2007). Memory strategy instruction, contextual learning and ESP vocabulary recall. English for specific purposes. 26(1), 39-51.

Ayer, W. W., & Milson, J. L. (1993). The effect of note taking and underlining on achievement in middle school life science. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 20 (2), 91-95.

Bean, T., & Steenwyk, F. (1984). The effect of three forms of summarization instruction on sixth graders’ summary writing and comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, 16 (3), 297 – 306.

Birjandi, P., & Rahimi, A. H. (2012). The effect of metacognitive strategy instruction on the listening performance of EFL students. International Journal of Linguistics, 4 (2), 495-517.

Bonner, J. M., & Holliday, W. G. (2006). How college science students engage in note-taking strategies. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43(8), 786-818.

Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Carrell, P. L. (2007). Note taking strategies and their relationship to performance on listening comprehension and communicative assessment tasks (TOEFL Monograph Series No. RS-35). Princeton, New Jersey: ETS. Retrieved January 24, 2016, from

Carter, R., & Nunan, D. (2001). The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge: CUP.

Chamot, A. U. (1995). Learning strategies and listening comprehension. In D. Mendelsohn & J. Rubin (Eds.). A Guide for the Teaching of Second Listening. (pp. 13-30). San Diego, California: Dominie Press.

Chastain, K. (1988/1998). Developing second language skills: Theory and practice (3rded). Boston: Harcourt Inc.

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological bulletin, 112 (1), 155.

Davis, M., & Hult, R. E. (1997). Effects of writing summaries as a generative learning activity during note-taking. Teaching of Psychology, 24 (1), 47-49.

Day, J. D. (1980). Training summarization skills: A comparison of teaching methods. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois.

Duke, N., & Pearson, P. D. (2002). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. In A.E. Farstrup & S.J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed., pp. 205 – 242). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Dunkel, P. (1988). The content of L1 and L2 students’ lecture notes and its relation to test performance. TESOL Quarterly, 2(2), 259-281.

Ehrman, M., & Oxford, R. (1988). Ants and grasshoppers, badgers and butterflies: Qualitative and quantitative exploration of adult language learning styles and strategies. Paper presented at the Symposium on Research Perspectives on Adult Language Learning and Acquisition, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Einstein, G. O. (1985). Note-taking, Individual Differences, and Memory for Lecture Information. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(5), 522-532.

Fajardo, C. P. (1996). Note-taking: A useful device. English Teaching Forum 34(2), 22-26.

Ghabanchi, Z., & Haji-Mirza, F. (2010). The effect of summarization on intermediate EFL learners’ reading comprehension and their performance on display, referential and inferential questions. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7(9), 53-60.

Gilakjani, P. A., & Ahmadi, M. (2011). A Study of Factors Affecting EFL Learners’ English Listening Comprehension and the Strategies for Improvement. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2 (5), 977-988.

Goh, C. (2000). A cognitive perspective on language learners’ listening comprehension problems. System, 28(1), 55-57.

Goh, C. (2002). Exploring listening comprehension tactics and their interaction patterns. System, 30 (2), 185-206.

Grabowski, B. L. (2004). Generative learning contributions to the design of instruction and learning. In Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, 2nd ed., edited by D. H. Jonassen and Association for Edu-cational Communications and Technology, (pp. 719–743). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hamouda, A. (2013). An Investigation of Listening Comprehension Problems Encountered by Saudi Students in the EL Listening Classroom. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 2 (2), 113-15.

Hare, V., & Borchardt, K. (1984). Direct instruction of summarization skills. Reading Research Quarterly, 20 (1), 62 – 78.

Jones, L. (2007). The Student Centered Classroom. New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from

Jones, L. (2007). The student-centered Classroom. New York: Cambridge University Press Alexandria Virginia.

Kamil, M. L. (2004). Vocabulary and comprehension instruction: Summary and implications of the National Reading Panel findings. In P. McCardle and V. Chhabra (Eds.), The voice of evidence in reading research. Baltimore, (pp. 172– 185). MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis. Beverly Hills: Laredo.

LeBauer, R. S. (2000). Learn to listen: Listen to learn. Academic listening and note-taking (2nd Ed.). New York: Longman.

Leow, R. P. (2015). Explicit Learning in the L2 Classroom: A Student-Centered Approach. London and New York: Routledge.

Liu, H. J. (2008). A study of the interrelationship between listening strategy use, listening proficiency levels, and learning style. RARECLS, 5(1), 84-104.

Marefat, H., & Shirazi, M. A. (2003). The Impact of Teaching Direct Learning Strategies on the Retention of Vocabulary by EFL Learners. The Reading Matrix, 3(2), 47-62.

McNeil, J., & Donant, L. (1982). Summarization strategy for improving reading comprehension. In J. A. Niles & L. A. Harris (Eds.), New inquiries in reading research and instruction (pp. 215 – 219). Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.

Morgan-Short, K., Heil, J., Botero-Moriarty, A., & Ebert, S. (2012). Allocation of attention to second language form and meaning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34(4), 659–685.

National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.

Nemati, A. (2009). Memory vocabulary learning strategies and long-term retention. International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 1 (2), 14-24.

Nwokoreze, U. N. D. (1990). Note-taking. English Teaching Forum, 33(2), 39-40.

O'Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., & Küpper, L. (1989). Listening comprehension strategies in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 10(4), 418-437.

Pallant, J. S. (2010). SPSS Survival Manual, A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis using SPSS for Windows. (4th ed.). Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest.

Peterson, P. (2001). Skills and strategies for proficient listening. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Rahimi, M., Sadighi, F., & Hosseinyfard, Z. (2011). The impact of linguistic and emotional intelligence on the reading performance of Iranian EFL learners. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 3(1), 151-171.

Rasouli, M., Mollakhan, K., & Karbalaei, A. (2013). The effect of metacognitive listening strategy training on listening comprehension in Iranian EFL context. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 2(1), 115-128.

Rinehart, S., Stahl, S., & Erickson, L. (1986). Some effects of summarizing training on reading and studying. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(5), 422 – 438.

Robinson, D. H., Katayama, A. D., Odom, S., Beth, A., Hsieh, Y. P., & Vanderveen, A. (2006). Increasing text comprehension and graphic note-taking using a partial graphic organizer task. Journal of Educational Research, 100(1), 103-111.

Rost, M. (2002). Teaching and Researching Listening. London, United Kingdom: Longman.

Tierney, R. J., & Shanahan, T. (1991). Research on the reading-writing relationship: Interactions, transactions, and outcomes. In R Barr, P.D. Pearson, P.B. Mosenthal & M.L. Kamil (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research,. 2(3), (pp. 246–279). White Plains, New York: Longman.

Schmidt-Reinhart, B. (1994). The effects of topic familiarity on second language listening comprehension. Modern Language Journal, 78(2), 179-189.

Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honor of H. G. Widdowson (pp. 125–144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swain, M. (2000). The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue. In J. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural theory and second language learning (pp. 97-114). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swain, M. (2005). The output hypothesis: theory and research. In E. Hinkel (Eds.). Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning (pp. 471-483). Mahwa, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Taylor, B. (1982). Text structure and children’s comprehension and memory for expository material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(3), 323 – 340.

Taylor, B., & Beach, R. (1984). The effects of text structure instruction on middle grade students’ comprehension and production of expository text. Reading Research Quarterly, 19(1), 134 – 146.

Vandergrift, L. (1997). The Strategies of second language (French) listeners: A Descriptive Study. Foreign Language Annals, 30(5), 387-409.

Vandergrift, L. (2003). From Prediction Through Reflection: Guiding Students: Through the Process of L2 Listening. Canadian Modern Language Review, 59(3), 425-440.

Vandergrift, L. (2007). Recent developments in second and foreign language listening comprehension research. Language Teaching, 40(1), 191–210.

Vandergrift, L., & Tafaghodtari, M. H. (2010). Teaching L2 Learners How to Listen Does Make a Difference: An Empirical Study. Language Learning 60(2), 470–497.

Wei, M. (2007). An examination of vocabulary learning of college-level learners of English in China. Asian EFL J., 9(2), 93-114.

Zarei, A. A, (2003). Patterns of Iranian Advanced Learners Problem with English Collocations: A focus on Lexical collocations. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 6(1), 137-169.

Zhao, Y. (1997). The effects of listeners’ control of speech rate on second language comprehension. Applied Linguistics, 18(1), 49-68.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.