Beyond Expectations: Autonomy and the Iranian Postgraduate Students in Malaysian Public Universities

Sina Neissi, Habsah Hussin

Abstract


Iranian learners at all levels of education (primary, secondary and tertiary) face a number of constraints in their studies due to restriction of educational system, cultures, upbringing and expectations of society. Based on this premise the researchers would like to explore the degrees of autonomy as practiced by selected Iranian postgraduate students studying at three premier public universities in Malaysia. Data were gathered using the Learner Autonomy Profile (LAP) developed by Confessore & Confessore (1992).  The findings reveal that these Iranian postgraduate students do practice autonomy and know how to apply positive coping strategies in their studies; thus indicating positive contradiction from the normal expectations of Iranian learners’ performance in relation to autonomy. The paper concludes with the impacts and implications of the findings.

Keywords


autonomy, Iranian postgraduate students, Malaysian public universities, Learner Autonomy Profile (LAP)

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmadi, R. & Mahdavi-Zafarghandi, A. (2013). Autonomous language learning in Iranian context: To what extent do students take responsibility for their learning?. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, 2(5): 17-26.

Aoki, N., & Smith, R.C. (1999). Learner autonomy in cultural context: The case of Japan. In Cotterall & D. Crabbe (eds.), Learner autonomy in language leanring: Defining the field and affecting change (pp.19-27). Franfurt-am-Main: Peter Lang.

Bayley, S., Fearnside, R., Arnol, J., Misiano, J. and Rottura, R. (2002) International students in Victoria. People and Place, 10, (2), 45-54.

Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning. London: Longman.

Benson, P. (Ed.). (2007). Learner autonomy 8: Teacher and learner perspectives. Dublin, Ireland: Authentik.

Benson, P., & Huang, J. (2008). Autonomy in the transition from foreign language learning to foreign language teaching. D.E.L.T.A., 24 (esp.), 421-439.

Borland, H and Pearce, A. (2002) Identifying key dimensions of language and cultural disadvantage at university. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, (2), 101 127.

Confessore, G. J, Confessore, S. J, (1992) In search of consensus in the study of self-directed learning. In: Long, H B and Associates 1992 Self-directed Learning: Application and research. Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma Craik, G L 1840 Pursuit of Knowledge Under Difficulties: Its Pleasures and Rewards. Harper & Brothers, New York

Confessore, G. J. & Park, E. (2004). Factor validation of the Learner Autonomy Profile, version 3.0 and extraction of the short form. International Journal of Self-directed Learning, 1 (1), 39 -58.

Cotterall, S. (1995). Developing a course strategy for learner autonomy. ELT Journal, 49(3), 219-227.

Crome, K., Farrar, R., & O’Connor, P. (2011). What is Autonomous Learning. Discourse, 9(1), 111-126. Retrieved from http://prs.heacademy.ac.uk/ view.html/PrsDiscourse Articles/113.

Dam, L. (1995). Learner Autonomy 3: from Theory to Classroom Practice. Dublin: Authentik.

Deng, L.(2004). Cultivating foreign language learners’ autonomous learning. Journal of Sichuan Foreign Language University2, 156-159.

Derrick, M. G. & Carr, P. B. (2003). Facilitating and understanding autonomy in adult learners. New Horizons in Adult Education, 17(2), 4-10.

Dickinson, L. (1987). Self-instruction in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.

Dickinson, L. (1992). Learner Autonomy 2: Learner Training for LanguageLearning. Dublin: Authentik.

Farahani, M. (2014). From Spoon Feeding to Self-Feeding: Are Iranian EFL Learners Ready to Take Charge of their Own Learning? Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 11(1), 98-115.

Gieve, S. & R. Clark (2005). ‘The chinese approach to learning’: Cultural trait or situated response? The case of a self-directed learning programme. System 33.2, 261–276.

Hashemian, M. & Soureshjani, K. H. (2011). The interrelationship of autonomy, motivation, and academic performance of Persian L2 learners in distance education contexts. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(4), 319-326

Hellsten, M. (2002) Students in transition: needs and experience of international students in Australia. Paper presented at the 16th Australian International Education Conference, Hobart, Tasmania.

Hellsten, M. and Prescott, A. (2004) Learning at university: the international students experience. International Education Journal, 5, (3), 344-351.

Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and foreign language learning. Oxford: Pergamon. (First published [1979], Strasbourg: Council of Europe.)

Kenny, B. (1993) 'For More Autonomy'. System, 21(4), 431-442.

Knowles, M. (1984). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (3rd ed.).Houston: Gulf Publishing. Knowles, M. S. (1980).

Legenhausen, L. (2003) Second language acquisition in an autonomous learning environment. In D. Little, J. Ridley and E. Ushioda (eds) Learner Autonomy in the Foreign Language Classroom: Teacher, Learner, Curriculum and Assessment (pp. 65_77). Dublin: Authentik.

Legenhausen, L. (1999) The emergence and use of grammatical structures in conversational interaction. In B. Mißler and U. Multhaup (eds) The Construction of Knowledge: Learner Autonomy and Related Issues in Foreign Language Learning (pp. 27_40). Tu¨ bingen: Stauffenburg.

Little, D. (1991). Learner autonomy 1: Definitions, issues and problems. Dublin: Authentik.

Littlewood, W. (1996). "Autonomy": An anatomy and a framework. System, 24(4), 427-435.

Little, D. (1999). Learner autonomy is more than a western cultural construct. In S. Cotterall & D. Crabbe (Eds.), Learner autonomy in language learning: Defining the field and affecting change (p.11-18). New York: Frankfurt.

Littlewood, W. 1999. "Defining and Developing Autonomy in East Asian Contexts." AppliedLinguistics 20 (1), 71-94.

Littlewood, W. (2001). Students' attitudes to classroom English learning: a cross-cultural study. Language Teaching Research 5.1: 3-28.

Little, D. (2000). Learner autonomy and human interdependence: some theoretical and practical consequences of a social-interactive view of cognition, learning and language. In B. Sinclair, I. McGrath and T. Lamb (eds), Learner Autonomy, Teacher Autonomy: Future Directions, 15-23. Harlow: Longman/Pearson Education.

Mahdavinia, M., & Nabatchi Ahmadi, L. (2011).portfolio assessment: A tool for self-directed learning at post-secondary level. In D. Gardner (Ed.), Fostering autonomy in language learning (pp. 76-90). Gaziantep: Zirve University.

Mulligan, D and Kirkpatrick, A. (2000) How much do they understand? Lecturers, students and comprehension. Higher Education Research and Development, 19, (3), 311-335.

Park, E. (2003). Learner autonomy in selected populations of East Asian graudate students whostudy at institutions in the United States. Doctoral dissertation, The Graduate School of Education and Human Development of the George Washington University.

Pennycook, A. (1997). Cultural alternatives and autonomy. In P. Beson & P. Voller (Eds.), Autonomy and independace in language learning (pp. 35-53). New York: Longman.

Ponton, M. K. & Hall, J. M. (2003). The relationship between postsecondary education and personal initiative for adult learners. Current Issues in Education, 6(17). Retrieved from http://cie.ed.asu.edu/volume6/ number17/

Riley, P. 1988. "The Ethnography of Autonomy." In A. Brookes and P. Grundy (Eds.), Individualization and Autonomy in Language Learning. London: Modern English Publications/The British Council.

Robertson, M., Line, M., Jones, S. and Thomas, S. (2000) International students, learning environments and perceptions: A case study using the Delphi technique. Higher Education Research and Development, 19, (1), 89-102.

Scharle, A. & Szabό, A. (2000). Learner autonomy: A guide to develop learner responsibility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sedigheh shakib Kotamjani & Habsah Hussin. (2017). Perception of challenges in writing academically: Iranian postgraduate students’ perspectives. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature. 6(4), 1-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.6n.4p.1

Smith, L. B. (2003). Learning to recognize objects. Psychological Science, 14,244–250.

Smith, R. C. (2008). Learner autonomy (Key concepts in ELT). ELT Journal, 62 (4),395-397.

Suharmanto. (2003). Learning autonomy: A way to improve English language teaching (ELT) in Indonesia. TEFLIN Journal, 14(1), 111-122.

Wong, J. K. (2004) Are the learning styles of Asian internationals culturally or contextually based? International Education Journal, 4(4), 154-166.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.6n.7p.353

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.