A Study of Selected Works of Iranian Female Novelists Based on Elaine Showalter’s Gynocriticism

Mojgan Eyvazi, Mohsen Momen, Homa Poorkaramali

Abstract


Iranian literature, like other literary works throughout the world, follows the social issues in society and attempt to depict them. One of such issues is portraying women position in the society. The present study focuses on three different novels by Iranian  female writers to show three stages of female writing development in them based on Elain Showalter’s theory of gynocriticism: Feminine stage which is represented through concepts like home, immovability, consumption, reading, house chores, dependence and past, feminist stage dealing with concepts like mobility, production, independence and future, and female stage that presents a new awareness of women consciousness. The chosen works are: Hangover Dawn (1995) by Fataneh Haj Sejed Javadi that portrays the tragic life of a woman who insisted on marrying a person who is not a suitable match for her. The author has shown the pains that this woman has to suffer because of her wrong choice in patriarchal society. The next novel is titled Don’t Worry (2008) by Mahsa Moheb Ali which deals with the life of an addicted girl named Shadi. She is the main character whose life is corrupted by family issues. Shadi wanders throughout the streets to find drug  and ironically herself.  My Bird (2002) by Fariba Vafi shows the life of an anonymous married woman who is stuck in her matrimonial life. The woman is neglected and cheated by her own husband. However, gradually she can come to a realization of her own self as a woman and redefines her own role. Having analyzed these three stories, it can be said that these three chosen novels match Showalter’s model of female writing development. It can be concluded that Hangover Dawn follows the first stage – feminine stage - Don’t Worry follows the second stage – feminist stage – and My Bird follows the third stage – female stage – that Showalter has proposed.


Keywords


Feminine, Feminist, Female, Hangover Dawn, Don’t Worry, My Bird

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bressler, Charles E. (2006). .Literary Criticism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.

Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Rutledge.

Callaghan, D. (2000). A Feminist Companion to Shakespeare. New Jersey: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Cobuild, C. (2010). Advanced Illustrated Dictionary. New York: Harper Collins Publishers Ltd.

Dusinberre, J. (1994). Shakespeare and the Nature of Women. London and New York: Rutledge.

Edley, N. (2001). Discourse as Data A Guide for Analysis. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Javadi, F. (1995). Hangover Dawn. Tehran: Nashr Alborz.

Lacan, J. (1975). “The Ego in Freud' and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis”. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, Book II, edited by J.A. Miller, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lerner, G. (1989). The Creation of Patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lorber, J. & S. A. Farrell. (1991).The Social Construction of Gender. California: Sage Publications Inc.

Moheb Ali, M. (2008). Don’t Worry. Tehran: Nashr Cheshmeh.

Money, J., & Hampson, J. ((1955).“Hermaphroditism: Recommendations Concerning Assignment Of Sex, Change Of Sex, And Psychologic Management”. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 97, 284 – 300.

Ostriker, A.S. (1986). Stealing the Language: The Emergence of Women’s Poetry in America. Boston: Beacon Press.

Peterson, M. J. (1984). “No Angels in the House: The Victorian Myth and the Paget Women.” The American Historical Review, 89(3), 677-708.

Reuther, R. (1983). Sexism and God-talk: towards a feminist theology. London: SPCK.

Rezvanian, Q., & Kiani, H. (2015). “The Representation of the Identity of Woman in the Works of 1380s Female Story Writers”. Journal of Research Literature, 31, 39-63.

Saeidian, S. & Hosseini, R. (2013). “A Sociological Study of Iranian Women’s Role in Fictional Literature in the Recent Two Decades”. International Journal of Women’s Research, 2(2), 59-72.

Schweickart, P. (1989). Reading Ourselves: Toward a Feminist Theory of Reading, edited by Elian Showlter, London: Routledge.

Seldon, R., and Widdowson, P., and Brooker, P. (2005). A Reader’s Guide to Contemporary Literary Theory. London: Edinburgh Gate.

Showalter, E. (1988). “Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness.” Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader, edited by David Lodge, London: Longman.

---. (1986). “Towards a Feminist Politics.” Contemporary Literary Criticism: Modernism through Post Structuralism, edited by Robert Con Davis, New York: Longman Inc.

--- ed. (1985). The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory. New York: Pantheon Books.

--- (1972). The Evolution of French Novel. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Snitow, A. (1990). A Gender Dairy.” Conflicts in Feminism, edited by Marianne Hirsch and Evelyn Fox Keller. New York: Rutledge.

Tyson, L. (2006). Critical Theory Today. New York: Rutledge.

Walters, M. (2005). Feminism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wilfred, L. Guerin and Labor, Earle and Morgan, Lee and Reesman, Jeanne C. and Willingham, John R. (1996). A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Vafi, F. (2002). Parande-ye man (My Bird). Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz.

Zanusi, S. (2013). A Thematic Analysis of My Bird, Scientific Information Database, Accessed September 4,. http://www.sid.ir.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.6n.4p.211

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.