An Examination of Negotiation Process among ESL Learners in Higher Institution

Safawati Basirah Zaid, Mohamad Hassan Zakaria, Radzuwan Ab Rashid, Nur Salina Ismail


Negotiation is an integral part of our daily lives. It occurs everywhere and requires skillful interactions. The purpose of this study is to examine the negotiation process among ESL learners and identify any problem that may arise in the process. The participants were twenty-six students who enrolled a course on effective oral communication skills in a public university in Malaysia. The main data were generated from a situational observation of the interactional features produced by the participants who were engaged in the negotiation tasks planned and created by them beforehand. Open-ended questionnaires were also used to capture learners’ reflections of the negotiation process. It is found that ESL learners come across major problems, such as loss of words and ideas, and also being overshadowed by proficient learners. The findings of this study contribute to the existing literature on negotiation process by providing insights into the problems faced by the learners while negotiating. These insights are hoped to be useful for teachers in equipping students with necessary language skills for them to manage negotiation process effectively.


ESL speakers, ESL learning, Meaning-making, Malaysia, Negotiation

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