EFL Teachers’ Epistemological Beliefs and Their Assessment Orientations

Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismail


Epistemological beliefs—beliefs about the nature of knowledge, where it resides, and how knowledge is constructed and evaluated—have been the target of increased research interest lately. Heretofore, emphasis has been directed to language teaching/learning aspects and strategies. Language assessment practices have not yet received due attention in epistemic research literature. The current study examined the relationship between pre-service EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs and their assessment orientations. Dimensions of epistemological beliefs were assessed via a questionnaire designed and validated by the researcher based on Schommer’s work. Two assessment orientations were examined including: (a) transmissive surface- processing orientation and (b) constructive deep-processing orientation. The study involved 114 preservice EFL teachers enrolled in the Professional Diploma in Teaching Program in the Abu Dhabi University, the United Arab Emirates. Results of the study showed that EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs have a direct bearing on their assessment orientations and practices. EFL teachers with naive epistemological beliefs tended more to adopt surface-level assessment orientations whereas those with sophisticated epistemological beliefs showed more tendency to adopt deeper level approaches to assessment in language settings. Results are discussed in terms of backwash effects on foreign language instruction, curriculum development, and teacher education. Suggestions for further research are also discussed.



Epistemological beliefs, assessment orientations, surface processing, deep processing

Full Text:



Abedi, J. & Linquanti, R. (2012). Issues and opportunities in strengthening large scale assessment systems for ELLs. Paper presented at the Understanding Language Conference, Stanford University, CA.

Aftab, A. Qureshi, S. & William, I. (2013). Investigating the washback effects of the Pakistani intermediate English examination. International Journal of English and Literature, 5(7), 149-154.

Akpinar, K. D. & Cakildereb, B. (2013). Washback effects of high-stakes language tests of Turkey (KPDS and ÜDS) on productive and receptive skills of academic personnel. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 9(2), 81-94.

Alexander, P. A. (2001). In the year 2020: Envisioning the possibilities for educational psychology. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271.

Ali, M. F, A. & Ammar, A. M. I. (January 2005). An investigation of the relationships between EFL pre-service teachers' epistemological beliefs and their learning strategies, teaching practices and foreign language classroom anxiety. Journal of Scientific Research in Education and Psychology (El-Minia Faculty of Education, Egypt) 18(3) 1-33.

Ammar, A. M. I. & Abdel-Majeed, U. M. (2006). Predicting gifted EFL students’ goal orientation, cognitive engagement, perceived linguistic competence, and achievement with epistemological beliefs. Paper presented at the Regional Scientific Conference on Giftedness and Creativity, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, August, 28-30.

Amrein, A.L. & Berliner, D.C. (2002, March 28). High-stakes testing, uncertainty, and student learning. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 10 (18). Retrieved January 10, 2006, from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v10n18/.

Andrews, S. (2004). Washback and curriculum innovation. In L. Cheng, Y. Watanabe, & A. Curtis (eds.), Washback in language testing: Research contexts and methods (pp. 37-50). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Apichatrojanakul, P. (2011). The Washback Effects of the TOEIC Examination on the teachers and students of a Thai Business School. Language Testing in Asia, 1(1), 62-75.

Arkoudis, S. (2003). Teaching English in science classes: Incommensurate epistemologies? Language and Education,17(5), 161-173.

Bachman, L. F. (2006, September). Issues in assessing the English proficiency and academic achievement of English language learners. Paper presented at the Mid-West Association of Language Testers Conference, Urbana-Champaign, IL.

Bailey A. L., Butler, F. A., Stevens, R., & Lord, C. (2007). Further specifying the language demands of school. In A. L. Bailey (Ed.), The language demands of school: Putting academic English to the test (pp. 103-156). CT: Yale University Press.

Bailey, A. L. & Huang, B. H. (2011). Do current English language development/ proficiency standards reflect the English needed for success in school? Language Testing, 28, 343-365.

Barnard, L. (2007). The expert ceiling in epistemological beliefs. Essays in Education, 19, 85-95.

Baxter-Magolda, M. B. (1992). Knowing and reasoning in college: Gender-related patterns in students’ intellectual development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Baxter-Magolda, M. B. (2004). Evolution of a constructivist conceptualization of epistemological reflection. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 31–42.

Birenbaum, M. (2003). New insights into learning and teaching and their implications for assessment. In M. Segers, F. Dochy & E. Cascallar (Eds.), Optimizing new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards (PP. 37-54). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Black, P. J., Wilson, M., & Yao, S. (2011). Road maps for learning: A guide to the navigation of learning progressions. Measurement, 9(2-3), 71-123.

Boekaerts, M. & Minnaerts, A. (2003). Assessment of students’ feelings of autonomy, competence, and social readiness: A new approach to measuring the quality of the learning process through self-and peer-assessment. In M. Segers, F. Dochy & E. Cascallar (Eds.), Optimizing new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards (PP. 170-225). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Braten, I. & Stromso, E. (2009). Personal epistemology across cultures: Exploring Norwegian and Spanish university students’ epistemic beliefs about climate change. Social Psychology of Education, 12(4), 529-560.

Braun, H. (2003). Assessment and technology. In M. Segers, F. Dochy & E. Cascallar (Eds.), Optimizing new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Braun, H. & Kanjee, A. (2006). Using assessment to improve education in developing nations. In H. Braun, A. Kanjee, E. Bettinger & M. Kremer (Eds.), Improving education through assessment, innovation, and evaluation (pp.1-46). Cambridge: American Academy of Arts & Sciences.

Brindley, G. (2001). Assessment. In R. Carter & D. Nunan (Eds.), Teaching English to speakers of other languages (PP. 137-143). Cambridge: CUP.

Brown, H. D. (2003). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices. New York: Longman.

Brown, H. D. (2005). Testing in language programs: A comprehensive guide to English language assessment (New ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill College.

Brownlee, J. M. (2001). Epistemological beliefs in pre-service teacher education students. Higher Education Research & Development, 20(3), 281-291.

Brownlee, J. M. (2001). Knowing and learning in teacher education: A theoretical framework of core and peripheral beliefs in application. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education & Development 4(1), 131-155.

Brownlee, J. P. & Boulton L. G. (2001) Changing epistemological beliefs in pre-service teacher education students. Teaching in Higher Education, 6(2), 247-268.

Buehl, M. M. & Alexander, P. A. (2001). Beliefs about academic knowledge. Educational Psychology Review, 13(4), 385 – 418.

Burrows, C. (2004). Washback in classroom-based assessment: A study of the washback in Australian adult migrant English program. In L. Cheng, Y. Watanabe, & A. Curtis (Eds.), Washback in language testing: Research contexts and methods (PP.113-128). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Campose, M. (2007). Ecology of meanings: A critical constructivist communication model. Communication Theory, 17(4), 386-410.

Carbery, S. (1999). Practicalities of ongoing assessment. JALT Testing & Evaluation, 3(1), 3-8.

Chan, k. (2002). Students’ epistemological beliefs and approaches to learning. Paper presented at the AARE2002 conference held in Brisbane, Australia from 1-5 December.

Chan, K. (2003, November). Pre-service teachers’ epistemological beliefs and conceptions about teaching and learning: Cultural implications for research in teacher education. Paper presented at the NZARE AARE Conference, Auckland, New Zealand.

Chan, K. & Elliott, R.G. (2002). Exploratory study of Hong Kong teacher education students ‘epistemological beliefs: Cultural perspectives and implications on beliefs research. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 392–414.

Chapelle, A. C. & Brindley, G. (2002). Assessment. In N. Schmitt (Ed.), An introduction to applied linguistics, (PP. 267-288). London: Arnold

Chapman, D.W., Snyder, C.W. (2000). Can high stakes national testing improve instruction: Reexamining conventional wisdom. International Journal of Educational Development 20, 457–474.

Cheng, L. (2004). The washback effect of a public examination change of teachers' perceptions toward their classroom teaching. In L. Cheng, Y. Watanabe, & A. Curtis (Eds.), Washback in language testing: Research contexts and methods (PP.147-170). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cheng, L. (2005). Changing language teaching through language testing: A washback study. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cheng, L. (2008). Washback, impact and consequences. In E. Shohamy & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education (Vol. 7): Language testing and assessment (PP. 349-364). Berlin: Springer Press.

Cheng, L. & Watanabe, Y. (2004). Washback in language testing: Research contexts and methods. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum & Associates.

Choi, I. (2008). The impact of EFL testing on EFL education in Korea. Journal of Language Testing, 25(1), 39-62.

Clarebout, G., Elen, J., Luyten, L. & Bamps, H. (2001). Assessing epistemological beliefs: Schommer’s questionnaire revisited. Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(1), 53-77.

Clark, E. V. (2009). First language acquisition (2nd Ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Coombe, C. A., & Hubley, N. J. (2003). Assessment practices. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

Cunningham, C. C. (2002). The TOEIC test and communicative competence: Do test score gains correlate with increased competence? Unpublished master's thesis, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Retrieved January 20, 2006, from http://www.cels.bham.ac.uk/resources/essays/cunndiss.pdf.

Datnow, A., Hubbard, L. & Mehan, H. (2002). Extending educational reform. London: Rutledge Falmer.

Davidson, F., Kim, J. T., Lee, H., Li, J., & Lopez, A. (2007). Making choices in academic English language testing: Evidence from the evolution of test specifications. In A. L. Bailey (Ed.), The language demands of school: Putting academic English to the test (PP. 157-170). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Davies, A. & LeMahieu, P. (2003). Assessment for learning: Reconsidering portfolios and research evidence. In M. Segers, F. Dochy & E. Cascallar (Eds.), Optimizing new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards (PP. 141-170). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Donald, J. G. (2002). Learning to think: Disciplinary perspectives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Donmoyer, R. (2001). Paradigm talk reconsidered. In V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (PP. 174-197). Washington, DC: American Education Research Association.

Dorantes, M. (2006). Professional testing = applied epistemology. Professional Weblog. Available online at: http://blogs.msdn.com/b/marcod/archive/2006/05.aspx. Retrieved on Wednesday, July 2nd, 2010.

Dori, Y. J. (2003). A framework for project-based assessment in science education. In M. Segers, F. Dochy & E. Cascallar (Eds.), Optimizing new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards (PP. 89-118). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Edwards, N. (2004). Rediscovering the creative heart of Japanese education: Fostering intrinsic motivation though a love of language. The Language Teacher, 28(1), 19-23.

Edwards, N. (2006). The historical and social foundations of standardized testing:

In search of a balance between learning and evaluation. JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 10(1), 8-16.

Estaji, M. & Tageddin, Z. (2012). The learner factor in washback context: An empirical study investigating the washback of the IELTS academic writing test. Language Testing in Asia, 2(1), 5-25.

Estes, D., Chandler, M., Horvath, K. J., & Backus, D. W. (2003). American and British college students’ epistemological beliefs about research on psychological and biological development. Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 625-642.

Flinders, D. J. (2005). The failings of NCLB. Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, 7(1), 1-9.

Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical guidelines for the education of English language learners: Research-based recommendations for the use of accommodations in large-scale assessments. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation.

Gallagher, C. J. (2003). Reconciling a tradition of testing with a new learning paradigm. Educational Psychology Review, 15(1), 83-99.

Gibbs, G. (2002). Evaluating the impact of formative assessment on student learning behavior. Paper presented at the EARLI/Northumbria Assessment conference, Longhurst, UK, August 29.

Gielen, S., Dochy, F. & Dierick, S. (2003). Evaluating the consequential validity of new modes of assessment: The influence of assessment on learning, including pre-, post- and true assessment effects. In M. Segers, F. Dochy & E. Cascallar (Eds.), Optimizing new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards (PP. 37-54). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Green, A. (2007). Washback to learning outcomes: A comparative study of IELTS preparation and university pre-sessional language courses. Assessment in Education, 14(1), 75-97.

Green, A. (2013). Washback in language assessment. International Journal of English Studies, 13(2), 39-52.

Greenwald, A., Bosek, B. & Sriram, N. (2006). Consequential validity of the implicit association test. American Psychologist, 16(1), 56-61.

Hammer, D. (2002, April). Epistemological resources. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.

Handley, K., & L. Williams. (2011). From copying to learning: using exemplars to engage students with assessment criteria and feedback. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 36, no. 1: 95-108.

Hawkey, R. (2004). An IELTS Impact Study: Implementation and some early findings. Research Notes, 15. Cambridge: Cambridge ESOL.

Hayes, B. & Read, J. (2003). IELTS test preparation in New Zealand. Preparing students for the IELTS academic modules. In L. Cheng, Y. Watanabe & A. Curis (Eds.), Washback in language Testing: Research contexts and methods. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Hayes, D. & Wynyard, R. (2002). The McDonaldization of higher education. CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Herman, J. L. (2004). The effects of testing on instruction. In S. Fuhrman & R. Elmore (Eds.), Redesigning accountability systems for education. New York: Teachers College Press.

Higgins, R., P. Hartley & Skelton, A. (2001). Getting the message across: The problem of communicating assessment feedback. Teaching in Higher Education 6(2), 269- 274.

Higgins, R., P. Hartley & Skelton, A. (2002). The conscientious consumer: Reconsidering the role of assessment feedback in student learning. Studies in Higher Education, 27(1), 53-64.

Hillocks, J. (2002). The testing trap: How state writing assessments control learning. New York: Teachers College Press.

Hofer, B. K. (2000). Dimensionality and disciplinary differences in personal epistemology. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 378-405.

Hofer, B. (2001). Personal epistemology research: Implications for learning and teaching. Journal of Educational Psychology Review, 13(4), 353-83.

Hofer, B. (2004): Epistemological understanding as a metacognitive process: Thinking aloud during online searching. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 43-55.

Hughes, A. (2002). Testing for language teachers (revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, K. (2001). An introduction to foreign language learning and teaching. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Karabenick, S. & Moosa, S. (2005). Culture and personal epistemology: US and Middle Eastern students’ beliefs about scientific knowledge and knowing. Social Psychology of Education, 8, 375-93.

Kardash, C. M. & Howell, K. L. (2000). Effects of epistemological beliefs and topic-specific beliefs on undergraduates/cognitive and strategic processing of dual-positional text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 524-535.

Knight, L. V. & Mattick, K. (2006). When I first came here, I thought medicine was black and white: Making sense of medical students’ ways of knowing. Social Science & Medicine, 63(4), 1084-1096.

Knight, P. T. (2002). Summative assessment in higher education: Practices in disarray. Studies in Higher Education, 27(3), 275-287.

Liu, L. & Zhang, Y. (2014). The application of constructivism to the teaching of intercultural communication. English Language Teaching, 7(5), 136-141.

Lokon, E. (2005). Will the New Center Test make English language education more communicative in Japanese schools? The Language Teacher, 29(11), 7-12.

Loyens, S. Rikers, R. & Schmidt, S. (2009). Students' perceptions of constructivist learning in different programme years and different learning environments. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3), 501-514.

Luna, C., & Turner, C. (2001). The impact of the MCAS: Teachers talk about high-stakes testing. English Journal, 91 (1), 79-87.

Luxia, Q. (2007). Is testing an efficient agent for pedagogical change? Examining the intended washback of the writing task in a high‐stakes English test in China. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 14 (1), 51-74.

MacWhinney, B. (2008). A unified model. In N. Ellis & P. Robinson (Eds.),Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (341-371). New York: Rutledge.

Many, J. E., Howard, F. & Hoge, P. (2002). Epistemology and pre-service teacher education: How beliefs about knowledge affected our students' experiences. English Education, 34(4), 302-322.

Masters, G. (2013). Reforming educational assessment: Imperatives, principles, and challenges. Victoria, Australia: ACER Press.

McNamara, T. (2000). Language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Moon, T., Brighton, C., & Callahan, C. (2003). State standardized testing programs: Friend or foe of gifted education? (On gifted students in school). Roeper Review, 25(2), 49-60.

Munoz, A. & Alvarez, M. (2010). Washback of an oral assessment system in the EFL classroom. Language Testing, 27 (11), 33-49.

O’Sullivan, B. (2006). Issues in testing business English. Studies in language testing (Vol. 17). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Payne, E. & Brown, G. (2011). Communication and practice with examination criteria: Does this influence performance in examinations? Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 36(6), 619-626.

Popham, W. (2001). The truth about testing: An educator’s call to action. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Qi, L. (2004). Has a high-stakes test produced the intended changes? In L. Cheng & Y. Watanabe (Eds.). Washback in language testing: Research contexts and methods (PP. 171-190). New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum & Associates.

Qian, G. & Alvermann, D. (2000). Relationship between epistemological beliefs and conceptual change learning. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 16, 59-74.

Ravindran, B., Greene, B. & DeBacker, A. (2005). Predicting preservice teachers' cognitive engagement with goals and epistemological beliefs. Journal of Educational Research, 98(4), 222-232.

Rea-Dickins, P. & Scott, C. (2007). Washback from language testing on teaching, learning, and policy: Evidence from diverse settings. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 14(1), 1-7.

Rivera, C., Collum, E., Shafer-Willner, L., & Sia, J. K. (2006). An analysis of state assessment policies regarding the accommodation of English language learners. In C. Rivera & E. Collum (Eds.), State assessment policy and practice for English language learners: A national perspective (pp. 1-173). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sacks, P. (1999). The high price of America’s testing culture and what we can do to change it. New York: Da Capo Press.

Saville, N. & Hawkey, R. (2003). The IELTS impact study: Investigating washback on teaching materials. In L. Cheng, Y. Watanabe & A. Curis (Eds.), Washback in language Testing: Research contexts and methods. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Schell, G. & Janicki, T. (2013). Online course pedagogy and the constructivist learning model. Journal of the Southern Association for Information Systems, 1(1). Retrieved online on July 23, 2016 from http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/jsais.11880084.0001.104.

Scherer, M. (2005). Reclaiming testing. Educational Leadership, 63(3), 9-15.

Schommer, M. (1994). Synthesizing epistemological belief of research: Tentative understandings and provocative confusions. Educational Psychology Review, 6(4), 293-319.

Schommer-Aikins, M, Duell, O. & Barker, S. (2003). Epistemological beliefs across domains using Biglan’s classification of academic disciplines. Research in Higher Education, 44(3), 347-66.

Schommer-Aikins, M. (2004). Explaining the epistemological belief system: Introducing the embedded systemic model and coordinated research approach. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 19-29.

Schreiber, J. B. & Shinn, D. (2003) Epistemological beliefs of community college students and their learning processes. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 27(8), 699-709.

Segers, M. (2003). Evaluating the overall test. In M. Segers, F. Dochy& E. Cascallar (Eds.), Optimizing new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards (PP.119-140). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Segers, M., Dochy, F. & Cascallar, E. (2003). The era of assessment engineering: changing perspectives on teaching and learning and the role of new modes of assessment. In M. Segers, F. Dochy & E. Cascallar (Eds.), Optimizing new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards (PP. 1-12). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Solano-Flores, G., & Trumbull, E. (2003). Examining language in context: The need for new research and practice paradigms in the testing of English-language learners. Educational Researcher, 32(2), 3-13.

Solano-Flores, G., & Li, M. (2006). The use of Generalizability (G) Theory in the testing of linguistic minorities. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 25(1), 13-22.

Sulimma, M. (2009). Relations between epistemological beliefs and culture classifications. Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, 3(1), 74 – 89.

Taylor, L. (2006). The changing landscape of English: Implications for language assessment. ELT Journal, 60(1), 51-60.

Topping, K. (2003). Self and peer assessment in school and university: Reliability, validity, and utility. In M. Segers, F. Dochy & E. Cascallar (Eds.), Optimizing new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards (PP. 55-88). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Tsai, C. (2000). The Effects of STS-oriented instruction on female tenth graders' cognitive structure outcomes and the role of student scientific epistemological beliefs. International Journal of Science Education, 22(10), 1099-1115.

Turner, C. (2006). Professionalism and high-stakes tests: Teachers’ perspectives when dealing with educational change introduced through provincial exams. TESL Canada Journal, 23(2), 54-75.

Van-Lier, L. & Walqui, A. (2012). How teachers and educators can most usefully and deliberately consider language. Paper presented at the Understanding Language Conference, Stanford University, CA.

Wall, D. (2000). The impact of high-stakes testing on teaching and learning: Can this be predicted or controlled? System, 28, 499-509

Wall, D. (2005). The impact of high-stakes examination on classroom teaching: A case study using insights from testing and innovation theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wall, D. & Horak, T. (2006). The impact of changes in the TOEFL examination on teaching and learning in Central and Eastern Europe: Phase 1, the baseline study. TOEFL Research Report (RR-06-18). Princeton: New Jersey.

Wang, J. & Zhang, Y. (2012). Practical application of constructivism and metacognition in computer-aided college English teaching (V.43). In International Conference on Education Technology and Computer. Singapore: IACSIT Press.

Wolf, M. K., Herman, J. L., Bachman, L. F., Bailey, A. L., & Griffin, N. (2008). Recommendations for assessing English language learners: English language proficiency measures and accommodation uses—Recommendations (CRESST Tech. Rep. No. 737). Los Angeles: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST).

Wolter, B. (2001). Comparing the L1 and L2 mental lexicon: A depth of individual word knowledge model. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23(1), 41-69.

Yıldırım, Ö. (2010). Washback effects of a high-stakes university entrance exam: Effects of the English section of the university entrance exam on future English language teachers in Turkey. Asian EFL Journal,12(2), 92-116.

Yoshida, K. (2006). Theoretical frameworks of testing in SLA: Processing perspectives and strategies in testing situations. JALT Testing & Evaluation, 10(1), 2-7.

Youn, I. (2000). The culture specificity of epistemological beliefs about learning. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 3, 87–105.

Youn, I., Yang, K. & Choi, I. (2001). An Analysis of the nature of epistemological beliefs: Investigating factors affecting the epistemological development of South Korean high school students. Asia Pacific Education Review, 2(1), 10-21.

Zhao, Z. (2013). An investigation into the consequential validity of a diagnostic college English speaking test. English Language Teaching, 6(2), 171-78.

Zimmerman, B. (2002). Achieving academic excellence: A self-regulatory perspective. In M. Ferrari (Ed.), The pursuit of excellence through education: The educational psychology series. (pp. 85-110). New Jersey: Erlbaum.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.6n.1p.99


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.