When the Research Design Matters in EFL Context: A Case of Different Responses to Open-response and Closed-response Questions on Motivational Orientation

Ma‘ssoumeh Bemani Naeini


This study aimed at investigating and exploring the degree of motivational orientation (i.e. instrumental and integrative motivation) among sixty Iranian TEFL students. A survey research design was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data, using a Likert-scale questionnaire containing six open-response items. Inferential analysis of quantitative data identified the subjects of the study with integrative orientation. However, descriptive analysis of open responses in terms of coded recurrent themes indicated contradictory results. In sum, the findings suggest a gap between Iranian TEFL students’ “desirable motivation” and “desired motivation”. The researcher attributes the contradictory results not only to the social context, but also to the type of questionnaire and the psychological status of respondents. Also, the findings provide support for other components of motivation other than just instrumentality and integrativeness, mainly “personal” aspects as proposed by Benson’s model of motivation.



motivational orientation, mixed methods research, teaching/learning English as a foreign language, Iranian EFL context

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/ijalel.v.1n.6p.264


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