From Strategic Perspective: Investigating Teacher-Employed Communication Strategies in EFL Classroom Context

Massoud Yaghoubi-Notash, Mohammad Amin Karafkan


Various studies have laid emphasis on the nature and patterns of strategy employment in EFL context. Most studies, however, tend to examine those strategies in learner performance. In this study, the researchers investigated the types of communication strategies used by teachers teaching elementary level learners compared to those who are teaching at advanced levels. To this end, 16 (8 elementary and 8 advanced) teachers’ verbal classroom performance were recorded and analyzed for characterizing the strategy types. Four full classroom sessions were recorded and transcribed of each teacher’s teaching. T-test results indicated that propositional reduction strategies were employed more significantly on the part of teachers teaching advanced-levels. There are a number of important pedagogical implications for teachers and learners regarding teaching experience, syllabus design, and curriculum development which are discussed.



Communication strategies, Teacher-employed strategies, Avoidance strategy, Message abandonment

Full Text:



Applegate, J. L. (1980). Adaptive communication in educational contexts: A study of teacher's communication strategies. Communication Education, 29,158-170.

Ansarin, A. (2003). Still a new inventory communication strategies? The case of Iranian EFL learners. Tabriz University Faculty of Literature and Human Science Journal, 46, 17-43.

Bialystok, E. (1983). Some factors in the selection and implementation of communication strategies. In C. Faerch and G. Kasper (Eds.), Strategies in interlanguage communication (pp.100-117). London: Longman.

Bialystok, E. (1990). Communication strategies: A psychological analysis of second language use. USA: Blackwell Publishers.

Brown, H. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th Ed). NY: Longman.

Canale, M. (1983). From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In J. C. Richards and R. W. Schmidt (Eds.). Language and communication (pp. 2-27). Harlow, UK: Longman.

Chen, S. Q. (1990). A study of communication strategies in interlanguage production by Chinese EFL learners. Language Learning, 40, 155-187.

Cohen , A and Dornyei , Z. (2002). Focus on the Language Learner: Motivation, styles and strategies. In N. Schmitt (Ed.) An introduction to applied linguistics (pp. 170-190). London: Arnold .

Cook,V.(1993). Linguistic and second language acquisition. London : Macmillan Press.

Dordinezhad, F., Ashori, M. and Hakimi, H. (2011). Communicative curriculum perceived by Iranian language teachers. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 1761-1765.

Dornyie, Z. and Scott, M. (1997). Communication strategies in second language: Definitions and taxonomies. Language Learning, 47(1), 173-211.

Dornyie, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis , R. (2004). Task based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Faerch, C., and Kasper, G. (1983a). Strategies in interlanguage communication. Harlow, UK: Longman

Faerch, C., and Kasper, G. (1983b). Plans and strategies in foreign language communication. In C. Færch and G. Kasper. (Eds.), Strategies in interlanguage communication (pp.20-60). London: Longman.

Gass, S. M., and Selinker, L. (1994). Second language acquisition: An introductory course. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Haastrup, K., and Phillipson, R. (1983). Achievement strategies in learner/native speaker interaction. In C. Færch and G. Kasper (Eds.), Strategies in interlanguage communication (pp. 140-158). Harlow, UK: Longman.

Halavais ,C. and Petrick, J. (2006). Communication theory. [Online] wikibooks retrieved in 2011, April, from

Jamshidnejad, A. (2011). Developing accuracy by using oral communication strategies in EFL interactions. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(3), 350-536 .

Kasper, G. and Kellerman, E. (1997). Communication strategies: Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives. Harton, UK: Longman.

Lammers, W. J., and Badia, P. (2005). Fundamentals of behavioral research. California: Thomson and Wadsworth.

Lynch, T. (1996). Communication in the language classroom, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mackey, A. and. Gass, S. M. (2005). Second language research: Methodology and design. Mahwah. N.J: Lawerence, Erlbawn.

Mei, A. (2010). Use of communication strategies by Chinese EFL learners. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 33(3), 1-15.

Nakatani, Y. (2006). Developing an oral communication strategy inventory. The Modern Language Journal, 90(2), 1-15.

Paribakht, T. (1985). Strategic competence and language proficiency. Applied Linguistics, 6, 132-146.

Pazhakh, A. (2006). An Investigation on Iranian EFL Learners’ Application of Avoidance

Strategies in Their Writings. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS),1(1),1-15

Poulisse, N. (1990). The use of compensatory strategies by Dutch learners of English. Dordrecht: Foris.

Rabab'ah, G. (2003). Communication problems facing Arab learners of English. Journal of Language, Learning, 3(1), 180-19 .

Richards, J. C. and Platt, J. (1992). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

Slezak–Swat, A. (2008).Components of strategic competence in advanced foreign language users. Doctoral dissertation. University of Slesia. [Online] Retrieved on December 17, 2011 from:

Tarone, E. (1977). Conscious communication strategies in interlanguage: A progress report on TESOL. Washington, D.C: TESOL.

Tarone, E. (1980). Communication strategies, foreigner talk and repair in interlanguage. Language Learning, 30, 417–431.

Tarone, E. (1981). Some thoughts on the notion of communicative strategy. TESOL Quarterly, 15, 285-95.

Tarone, E., and Yule, G. (1987). Communication strategies in East-West interactions. In L. E. Smith (Ed.), Discourse across cultures: Strategies in world English (pp. 49–65). Hemel Hempstead, UK: Prentice Hall.

Taron, E., and Yule, G. (1989). Focus on language learner. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Van Lier, L. (1988). What’s wrong with classroom talk? Prospect, 3, 267–83.

Van den Berg, M. (1988). Long term accommodation of (ethno) linguistic groups toward a societal language norm. Language and Communication, 8, 251–269.

Wood, J. (2011).Communicative language teaching (CLT) and communication strategies (CSs). Theory and practice. 名古屋外国語大学現代国際学部 紀要 第7,231-243. [Online] Retrieved on December 18, 2011 from:

Ya-ni, Z. (2007). Communication strategies and foreign language learning. US-China Foreign Language, 5(4), 1-24

Yarmohammadi, L. and Seif, S.(1992). More on communication strategies: Classification, resources, frequency and underlying processes. IRAL, 30,123-232.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2021 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.