Scratching the Knowledge Base Surface of Ministry of Education (MOE) English Teacher Supervisors in Iran

Seyed Ayatollah Razmjoo, Alireza Rasti


Based on the expert observation that the teacher “supervisor’s role is, in part, culturally defined” (Bailey, 2006, p.6), and the perceived gap that few supervisors receive formal training, in the current study, the researchers report on the views of Ministry of Education (MOE) teachers and supervisors in the Iranian context as to what constitutes the knowledge base of supervisors. Having conducted qualitative content analysis on the data gleaned from interviews with the teachers and supervisors and open-ended questionnaires, we came up with a framework of supervisory skill/knowledge domains – one encompassing public relations skills, subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and contextual sensitivity. The results show that teachers by and large, by voicing their discontent with current supervisory routines, opt for humanistic supervisory procedures. The study, hoping to be taken up with more supervisory knowledge base studies, ends with advice on building supervisory preparation courses into existing teacher development programs.



Iran, language teacher supervision, knowledge base, Ministry of Education, pedagogical content knowledge

Full Text:



Acheson, K. A., & Gall, M. D. (2011). Clinical supervision and teacher development: Preservice and inservice applications (6th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Akbari, R., Ghafar Samar, R., & Tajik, L. (2006). Developing a classroom observation model based on Iranian EFL teachers’ attitude. Journal of Faculty of Letters and Humanities, 198, 1-38.

Anderson, R. H. (1982). Creating a future for supervision. In In Thomas Sergiovanni (Ed.), Supervision of teaching (pp. 181-190). Alexander VA: ASCD.

Ary, D., Jacobs, C., & Sorensen, C. (2010). Introduction to research in education. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Bailey, K. M. (2006). Language teacher supervision: A case-based approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burns, A. & Richards, J. C. (Eds.) (2009). The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education. New York: Cambridge University press.

Dahmardeh, M. (2006). A Preliminary research on textbook evaluation: How to make the Iranian secondary school’s English language textbooks communicative? Unpublished master's thesis, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, Great Britain.

Dahmardeh, M. (2009). English language teaching in Iran and communicative language teaching. Unpublished PhD thesis. Warwick University, Great Britain.

Daresh, J. C. (2001). Supervision as proactive leadership (3rd ed.). Prospects High, IL: Waveland Press.

Duff, P. A. (2008). Case study research in applied linguistics. New York, NY: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.

Gebhard, J. G. (1984). Models of supervision: Choices. TESOL QUARTERLY, 18(3), 501-514.

Goldsberry, L. (1988). Three functional methods of supervision. Action in Teacher Education, 10(1), 1-10.

Kayaoglu, M. N. (2012). Dictating or facilitating: The supervisory process for language teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(10), 103-117.

Kennedy, J. (1993). Meeting the needs of teacher trainees on teaching practice. ELT Journal, 47(2), 157-165.

Kiany, GR., Mahdavi, B., & Ghafar Samar, R. (2011). Towards a harmonized foreign language education program in Iran: National policies and English achievement. Literacy Information and Computer Educational Journal (LICEJ), 2(3), 462-469.

Kleiber, P. B. (2004). Focus groups: More than a method of qualitative inquiry. In K. deMarrais & S. D. Lapan (Eds.), Foundations for research: Methods if inquiry in education and the social science (pp. 87-102). Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Marshall, K. (2009). Rethinking teacher supervision and evaluation: How to work smart, build collaboration, and close the achievement gap. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Pishghadam, R., & Mirzaee, A. (2008). English language teaching in postmodern era. TELL,2(7), 89-109.

Stones, E. (1984). Supervision in teacher education: A counseling and pedagogical approach. London: Methuen & CO LTD.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.