Differences between Task, Exercise, and Drill in L2 Education: A Systems-thinking Perspective

Somayyeh Sabah

Abstract


The present study considered the definitions of and differences between the concepts of task, exercise, and drill in the related literature on L2 practices. The concept of task has been commonly differentiated from the exercise and drill with respect to certain criteria. Task is, in the main, meaning-based, goal-oriented, and purposeful with a nonlinguistic and communicative outcome. Based on Long (2016), task demands the L2 use in the real world. Also, as said by Swales (1990), tasks are more relatable to the genre than the other two language practices. Moreover, the task performance endows L2 learners with higher degrees of freedom than the accomplishment of the exercise and drilling, respectively. Furthermore, this study examined and supported a systems-thinking perspective on task-based language teaching (TBLT) (Finch, 2001). However, considering the task phase as a complex system seems to be still under debate and thus needs more research and analysis.

Keywords


Chaos/Complexity Theory, Communicative Approach, Drill, Exercise, Genre, L2 Education, Task

Full Text:

PDF

References


Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.

Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Language teaching approaches: An overview. In M. Celce Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed. pp. 3-11). Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.

Chastain, K. (1988). Developing second language skills: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Dagnell, R. (2017). Task, activity, exercise? [blog post] Retrieved June 14, 2018, from http://blogs.brighton.ac.uk/tlm25dagnell/2017/05/04/task-activity-exercise/#_ ENREF_4

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York, NY: Free Press.

Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. Chicago, IL: Henry Regnery.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2009). Task-based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 221-246.

Finch, A. E. (2001). Complexity in the language classroom. Secondary Education Research, 47, 105-40.

Finch, A. E. (2004). Complexity and systems theory: Implications for the EFL teacher/researcher. Journal of Asia TEFL, 1(2), 27-46. Retrieved May 07, 2011, from http://finchpark.com/arts/ComplexitySystems.pdf

Hymes, D. H. (1972). On communicative competence. In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics (pp. 269-293). Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Kendricks, H., Kim, Y., Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2002). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics (3rd ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education.

Khatib, M., & Sabah, S. (2012). Task-oriented conversations: The implications of drama for second language acquisition. Theory and Practice in Language Studies (TPLS), 2(6), 1120-1127.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (1997). Chaos/complexity science and second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 18(2), 141-165.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2002). Language acquisition and language use from a chaos/complexity theory perspective. In C. Kramsch (Ed.), Language acquisition and language socialization: Ecological perspectives (pp. 33-46). London: Continuum.

Larsen-Freeman, D., & Anderson, M. (2011). Techniques and principles in language teaching (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Levy, D. L. (2000). Applications and limitations of complexity theory in organization theory and strategy. In J. Rabin, G. J. Miller, & W. B. Hildreth (Eds.), Handbook of strategic management (pp. 67-87). New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.

Long, M. H. (2016). In defense of tasks and TBLT: Nonissues and real issues. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, 5-33. doi: 10.1017/S0267190515000057

Lopez, J., Jr. (2015). Task-based learning: A complex perspective. Revista Desempenho, 23(1). Retrieved June 2, 2018, from file:///C:/Users/Asus/AppData/ Local/file:///C:/Users/Asus/AppData/Local/Packages/Microsoft.MicrosoftEdge_8 wekyb3d8bbwe/TempState/Downloads/16343-51232-1-SM.pdf

Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Nunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching & learning. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Nunan, D. (2001). Aspects of task-based syllabus design. Retrieved May 07, 2011 http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/syllabusdesign.html

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Paulston, C. T., & Bruder, M. N. (1976). Teaching English as a second language: Techniques and procedures. Cambridge, MA: Winthrop Publishers.

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Rickles, D., Hawe, P., & Shiell, A. (2007). A simple guide to chaos and complexity. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 61(11), 933-937. doi: 10.1136/jech.2006.054254

Sabah, S. (2017). Interactional competence and SLA: A systems-thinking perspective. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research (JALLR), 4(4), 185-191.

Searle, C. (2008). Process versus product? Personal reflection and experimentation in task-based learning with the Hiroshima Teacher Trainees. ELTED, 11, 33-38.

Swales, J. (1990). Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Taboada, M. T. (2004). Building coherence and cohesion: Task-oriented dialogue in English and Spanish. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Tritt, G. (2000). Task-based exercises. Retrieved February 07, 2018, from http://tritt. bizland.com/swissenglish/tbl/richmond.htm

Willis, J. (1996). A framework for task-based learning. New York, NY: Longman.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2018 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.