A New Phenomenon in Saudi Females’ Code-switching: A Morphemic Analysis

Mona O. Turjoman


This sociolinguistics study investigates a new phenomenon that has recently surfaced in the field of code-switching among Saudi females residing in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. This phenomenon basically combines bound Arabic pronouns, tense markers or definite article to English free morphemes or the combination of bound English affixes to Arabic morphemes. Moreover, the study examines the factors that affect this type of code-switching. The results of the study indicate that this phenomenon provides data that invalidates Poplack’s (1980) universality of the ‘Free Morpheme Constraint’. It is also concluded that the main factors that influence this type of code-switching is solidarity and group identity among other factors.

Keywords: Code-switching, Saudi females, sociolinguistics, CS factors, morphemic analysis

Full Text:



Abalhassan, K., & Alshalawi, H. (2000). Code-switching behaviour of Arab speakers of English as a second language in the United States. Intercultural Communication Studies, 10(1), pp. 179-188.

AL-Hourani, A., & Afiza, T. (2013). Code switching in daily conversation. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 1(1), pp. 40-43.

Alkhresheh, M. (2015). Code-switching and mixing of English and Arabic among Arab students at Aligarh Muslim University in India. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(2), pp. 1-4.

Alsadeqi, F. (2010). Integrating English words into Gulf Arabic. International Journal of Arts and Sciences, 3 (10), pp. 115-129.

Al-Sharif, A. (2015). Three-year-old English-Arabic Bilingual: Notes on Syntictic code-switching. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 2 (1), pp. 71-89.

Bader, Y., & Minnis, D. (2000). Morphological and syntactic code-switching in the speech of an Arabic-English bilingual child. Multilingua, 19(4), pp. 383-403.

Bader, Y. (1995). Codeswitching to English in daily conversations in Jordan: Factors and attitudes. Abhath Al-Yarmouk, 13 (1), pp.9-27.

________ (1998). Lexical Codeswitchingin the speech of an Arabic-English Bilingual child. Interface, 13(1), pp. 3-17.

________ (2003). Some characteristics of codeswitching to Arabic among non-English foreign nationals in Jordan. Damascus University Journal, 19 (3+4), pp. 35-52.

Bentahila, A. & Davies, E. (1983). The syntax of Arabic-French code-switching. Lingua, 59(4), pp. 301-330.

Blom, J. P., & Gumperz, J.J. (1972). Social meaning in linguistic structures: Codeswitching in Norway. In J.J.

Ene, E. (2011). Romanian-English code-switching: A preliminary study. Arizona Working Papers in SLAT, 8, pp.45-55.

Grosjean, F. (1982). Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press.

Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse Strategies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Hoffmann, C. (1991). An Introduction to Bilingualism. London and New York: Longman.

Jacobson, R. (ed). (1990). Codeswitching as a worldwide phenomenon.New York: Peter Lang.

Labov, W. (1972). Language in the Inner City.Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Milroy, L. & Muysken, P. (eds). (1995). One Speaker, Two Languages: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Code-switching. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Mufwene, S. & Moshi, L. (1993). Topics in African Linguistics. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Murad,T. (2013). Arab Practicum Guides Code-switch to Hebrew: Attitudes, Factors and Reasons. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4(6), pp. 1160-1166.

Owens, J. (2005). Hierarchicalized matrices: codeswitching among urban Nigerian Arabs. Linguistics, 43, pp. 957-993.

Pandit, I. (1990). Grammaticality in code-switching. In Rodolfo Jacobson (ed), 33-69.

Poplack, S. (1980). Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en espanol. Linguistics 26, 581-618.

Redouane, R. (2005). Linguistic constrains on codeswitching and codemixing of bilingual Moroccan Arabic-French speakers in Canada. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism, pp. 1921-1933.

Sankoff, D. & Poplack, S. (1981). A formal grammar for code-switching. Paper in Linguistics: International Journal of Human Communication, 14(1), pp.3-45.

Scotton, C. (1987).Code switching and types of multilingual communities. In Georgrtown University Round Table. Pp. 61-82.

Taweel, A. & Btoosh, M. (2012). Syntactic aspects of Jordanian Arabic-English intra-sentenial code-switching. Linguistica, http://www.phil.muni.cz/linguistica/art/taweelbtoosh/tab-001.pdf

Weinreich, U. (1953). Languages in contact. The Hague: Mouton.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.