Effect of High-intensity Interval Training Session Timing on Inflammatory Biomarkers in Overweight and Obese Individuals with Different Chronotypes

Ayyappan Jayavel, Meera Shivasekar, Vinodhini V.M


Background: Global attention on obesity prevention emphasizes cost-effective strategies, particularly physical activity. Evaluating chronobiological influences is crucial for effective treatment plans. Noncommunicable disease management requires a nuanced approach to address this pervasive health concern. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of chronotype-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on inflammatory biomarkers among overweight and obese individuals. Methods: This experimental study, involving 58 obese adults, utilized pretest and post-test evaluations. Participants, aged 31.65 ± 9.1 years with a mean BMI of 29.04 ± 4.04, underwent 12 weeks of cycling HIIT (10 sec on/10 sec off) thrice weekly. Pre- and post-training venous blood samples were collected, centrifuged, and stored at -80°C. Outcome measures included metabolic, inflammatory biomarkers, and anthropometric data. Result: The findings of this study demonstrate that there is a significant difference in metabolic variables such as fasting sugar, fasting insulin, 3.7%, 27% (p=0.00), and IL6 5.7% (p=0.00) levels between the chronotype-based exercise session group (CBES) and non chronotype based exercise session group (NCBES). Anthropometric and other inflammatory variables, such as Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF -alpha) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs CRP), showed no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: The study concluded that chronotype-based HIIT is effective on metabolic markers but not on inflammatory markers in obese individuals.


High-intensity Interval Training, Chronotypes, Insulin, Body Mass Index Inflammation, Obesity

Full Text:



Abdelbasset, W. K., Tantawy, S. A., Kamel, D. M., Alqahtani, B. A., & Soliman, G. S. (2019). A randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of 8-week high-intensity interval exercise on intrahepatic triglycerides, visceral lipids, and health-related quality of life in diabetic obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Medicine (United States), 98(12). https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014918

Aloui, K., Abedelmalek, S., Chtourou, H., Wong, D. P., Boussetta, N., & Souissi, N. (2017). Effects of time-of-day on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, biochemical markers, and hormonal response following level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test. Physiology International, 104(1), 77–90.

Ammar, A., Chtourou, H., & Souissi, N. (2017). Effect of Time-of-Day on Biochemical Markers in Response to Physical Exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(1), 272–282. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001481

Blankenship, J. M., Rosenberg, R. C., Rynders, C. A., Melanson, E. L., Catenacci, V. A., & Creasy, S. A. (2021). Examining the Role of Exercise Timing in Weight Management: A Review. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(11), 967–978. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1485-1293

Bull, F. C., Al-Ansari, S. S., Biddle, S., Borodulin, K., Buman, M. P., Cardon, G., Carty, C., Chaput, J. P., Chastin, S., Chou, R., Dempsey, P. C., Dipietro, L., Ekelund, U., Firth, J., Friedenreich, C. M., Garcia, L., Gichu, M., Jago, R., Katzmarzyk, P. T., … Willumsen, J. F. (2020). World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54(24), 1451–1462. https://doi.org/10.1136/BJSPORTS-2020-102955

Daskapan, A., Tuzun, E. H., & Eker, L. (2006). Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity in University Students. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 5(4), 615–615.

DeFronzo, R. A., & Tripathy, D. (2009). Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance Is the Primary Defect in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32(Suppl 2), S157–S163. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-S302

F. Adeniyi, A., M. Anjana, R., & B. Weber, M. (2016). Global Account of Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity Among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Narrative Review of the Literature. Current Diabetes Reviews, 12(4), 440–448. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573399812666160609102956

Fahed, G., Aoun, L., Zerdan, M. B., Allam, S., Zerdan, M. B., Bouferraa, Y., & Assi, H. I. (2022). Metabolic Syndrome: Updates on Pathophysiology and Management in 2021. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020786

Fillon, A., Mathieu, M. E., Boirie, Y., & Thivel, D. (2019). Appetite control and exercise: Does the timing of exercise play a role? Physiology & Behavior, 218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112733ï

Hammouda, O., Chtourou, H., Chaouachi, A., Chahed, H., Bellimem, H., Chamari, K., & Souissi, N. (2013). Time-of-day effects on biochemical responses to soccer-specific endurance in elite Tunisian football players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(9), 963–971. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.757345

Kadariya, S., & Aro, A. R. (2018). Barriers and facilitators to physical activity among urban residents with diabetes in Nepal. PloS One, 13(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0199329

Keating, S. E., Johnson, N. A., Mielke, G. I., & Coombes, J. S. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on body adiposity. Obesity Reviews, 18(8), 943–964. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12536

Khalafi, M., & Symonds, M. E. (2020). The impact of high-intensity interval training on inflammatory markers in metabolic disorders: A meta-analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 30(11), 2020–2036. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13754

Kong, Z., Fan, X., Sun, S., Song, L., Shi, Q., & Nie, J. (2016). Comparison of high-intensity interval training and moderate-to-vigorous continuous training for cardiometabolic health and exercise enjoyment in obese young women: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE, 11(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158589

Maillard, F., Pereira, B., & Boisseau, N. (2018). Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 48(2), 269–288. https://doi.org/10.1007/S40279-017-0807-Y

Malik, V., & Pundir, C. S. (2002). Determination of total cholesterol in serum by cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase immobilized and co-immobilized on to arylamine glass. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 35(3), 191–197.

Mancilla, R., Krook, A., Schrauwen, P., & Hesselink, M. K. C. (2020). Diurnal Regulation of Peripheral Glucose Metabolism: Potential Effects of Exercise Timing. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 28 Suppl 1(Suppl 1), S38–S45. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22811

Martland, R., Mondelli, V., Gaughran, F., & Stubbs, B. (2020). Can high-intensity interval training improve physical and mental health outcomes? A meta-review of 33 systematic reviews across the lifespan. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(4), 430–469. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1706829

Mayoral, L. P. C., Andrade, G. M., Mayoral, E. P. C., Huerta, T. H., Canseco, S. P., Rodal Canales, F. J., Cabrera-Fuentes, H. A., Cruz, M. M., Pérez Santiago, A. D., Alpuche, J. J., Zenteno, E., Ruíz, H. M., Cruz, R. M., Jeronimo, J. H., & Perez-Campos, E. (2020). Obesity subtypes, related biomarkers & heterogeneity. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 151(1), 11–21. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1768_17

Minnebeck, K., Vorona, E., Zinn, S., Gellner, R., Hinder, J., Brand, S. M., Kabar, I., Alten, F., & Schmitz, B. (2021). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improve the cardiometabolic risk profile of overweight patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). European Journal of Sport Science, 21(8), 1193–1203. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2020.1810782

Nguyen, X. M. T., Lane, J., Smith, B. R., Nguyen, N. T., Amini, M., Djazayery, A., Khosravi, M., Shafaatdoost, M., Booth, F. W., Roberts, C. K., Laye, M. J., F. Adeniyi, A., M. Anjana, R., B. Weber, M., Daskapan, A., Tuzun, E. H., Eker, L., Mailey, E. L., Huberty, J., … Hu, F. B. (2016). Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2016, 4073618–4073618. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4073618

Pacific, W. H. Organization. R. O. for the W. (2000). The Asia-Pacific perspective: Redefining obesity and its treatment. Sydney : Health Communications Australia. http://iris.wpro.who.int/handle/10665.1/5379

Peake, J. M., Tan, S. J., Markworth, J. F., Broadbent, J. A., Skinner, T. L., & Cameron-Smith, D. (2014). Metabolic and hormonal responses to isoenergetic high-intensity interval exercise and continuous moderate-intensity exercise. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 307(7), E539–E552. https://doi.org/10.1152/AJPENDO.00276.2014

Ramírez-Vélez, R., Hernández-Quiñones, P. A., Tordecilla-Sanders, A., Álvarez, C., Ramírez-Campillo, R., Izquierdo, M., Correa-Bautista, J. E., Garcia-Hermoso, A., & Garcia, R. G. (2019). Effectiveness of HIIT compared to moderate continuous training in improving vascular parameters in inactive adults. Lipids in Health and Disease, 18(1), 42. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-019-0981-z

Ryan, B. J., Schleh, M. W., Ahn, C., Ludzki, A. C., Gillen, J. B., Varshney, P., Van Pelt, D. W., Pitchford, L. M., Chenevert, T. L., Gioscia-Ryan, R. A., Howton, S. M., Rode, T., Hummel, S. L., Burant, C. F., Little, J. P., & Horowitz, J. F. (2020). Moderate-Intensity Exercise and High-Intensity Interval Training Affect Insulin Sensitivity Similarly in Obese Adults. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 105(8), e2941–e2941. https://doi.org/10.1210/CLINEM/DGAA345

Saad, A., Dalla Man, C., Nandy, D. K., Levine, J. A., Bharucha, A. E., Rizza, R. A., Basu, R., Carter, R. E., Cobelli, C., Kudva, Y. C., & Basu, A. (2012). Diurnal pattern to insulin secretion and insulin action in healthy individuals. Diabetes, 61(11), 2691–2700. https://doi.org/10.2337/db11-1478

Salgado, A. L. F. D. A., De Carvalho, L., Oliveira, A. C., Dos Santos, V. N., Vieira, J. G., & Parise, E. R. (2010). Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in the differentiation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy individuals. Arquivos de Gastroenterologia, 47(2), 165–169. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032010000200009

Savikj, M., Gabriel, B. M., Alm, P. S., Smith, J., Caidahl, K., Björnholm, M., Fritz, T., Krook, A., Zierath, J. R., & Wallberg-Henriksson, H. (2019). Afternoon exercise is more efficacious than morning exercise at improving blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes: A randomised crossover trial. Diabetologia, 62(2), 233–237. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-018-4767-z

Shim, J.-S., Oh, K., & Kim, H. C. (2014). Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies. Epidemiology and Health, 36, e2014009–e2014009. https://doi.org/10.4178/EPIH/E2014009

Shiotani, H., Umegaki, Y., Tanaka, M., Kimura, M., & Ando, H. (2009). Effects of aerobic exercise on the circadian rhythm of heart rate and blood pressure. Chronobiology International, 26(8), 1636–1646. https://doi.org/10.3109/07420520903553443

Souissi, N., Gauthier, A., Sesboüé, B., Larue, J., & Davenne, D. (2004). Circadian rhythms in two types of anaerobic cycle leg exercise: Force-velocity and 30-s Wingate tests. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25(1), 14–19. https://doi.org/10.1055/S-2003-45226

Trine, M. R., & Morgan, W. P. (1995). Influence of time of day on psychological responses to exercise. A review. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 20(5), 328–337. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199520050-00004

Tsai, H. H., Lin, C. P., Lin, Y. H., Hsu, C. C., & Wang, J. S. (2016). High-intensity Interval training enhances mobilization/functionality of endothelial progenitor cells and depressed shedding of vascular endothelial cells undergoing hypoxia. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(11–12), 2375–2388. https://doi.org/10.1007/S00421-016-3490-Z

van Baak, M. A., Pramono, A., Battista, F., Beaulieu, K., Blundell, J. E., Busetto, L., Carraça, E. V., Dicker, D., Encantado, J., Ermolao, A., Farpour-Lambert, N., Woodward, E., Bellicha, A., & Oppert, J. M. (2021). Effect of different types of regular exercise on physical fitness in adults with overweight or obesity: Systematic review and meta-analyses. Obesity Reviews : An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 22 Suppl 4(Suppl 4). https://doi.org/10.1111/OBR.13239

van Moorsel, D., Hansen, J., Havekes, B., Scheer, F. A. J. L., Jörgensen, J. A., Hoeks, J., Schrauwen-Hinderling, V. B., Duez, H., Lefebvre, P., Schaper, N. C., Hesselink, M. K. C., Staels, B., & Schrauwen, P. (2016). Demonstration of a day-night rhythm in human skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Molecular Metabolism, 5(8), 635–645. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2016.06.012

Vella, C. A., Taylor, K., & Drummer, D. (2017). High-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training elicit similar enjoyment and adherence levels in overweight and obese adults. European Journal of Sport Science, 17(9), 1203–1211. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1359679

Vitale, J. A., & Weydahl, A. (2017). Chronotype, Physical Activity, and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 47(9), 1859–1868. https://doi.org/10.1007/S40279-017-0741-Z

Westwood, A., Bullock, D. G., & Whitehead, T. P. (1986). An examination of the hexokinase method for serum glucose assay using external quality assessment data. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 23(1), 92–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/000456328602300111

WHO. (2021). Obesity and overweight. WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight

WHO. (2022). Physical activity. WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/physical-activity

Wilhelmsen, A., Mallinson, J., Jones, R., Cooper, S., Taylor, T., & Tsintzas, K. (2019). Chronic effects of high-intensity interval training on postprandial lipemia in healthy men. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 127(6), 1763–1771. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00131.2019

Wolff, C. A., & Esser, K. A. (2019). Exercise timing and circadian rhythms. Current Opinion in Physiology, 10, 64–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cophys.2019.04.020

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.11n.4p.17


  • There are currently no refbacks.

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.