Revenge and Retribution: Reli(E)Ving Trauma in Frozen by Bryony Lavery

Kamelia Talebian Sedehi, Tay Lai Kit, Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya

Abstract


Widely studied and defined, trauma has made its way into the streamline of various disciplines of study. Events such as war, natural disasters, violence, and verbal degradation are some factors which could traumatize a person. Although there is no definitive symptom for trauma, one usually suffers from social anxiety, low self-esteem, erratic behavior, or even aggressive tendency. In this article, we attempt to trace the psyche of the protagonist Ralph, in Bryony Lavery’s play Frozen. We want to identify the cause and effect of his traumatic experience during childhood when he was victimized sexually by his mother’s multiple lovers. In addition, the article will also shed light on his view of female figures in general as he grows into his adulthood. We argue that Ralph is stuck in his past and is constantly seeking for opportunities to create and relive the experience which has shaped him into becoming the “monster” he is now. Much to his dismay, we will see how his effort in exacting revenge on his mother is futile and that his thought of retribution to relieve himself winds up in death.

Keywords: Child Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Trauma, Victim


Full Text:

PDF

References


Babaee, R. and Wan R. Wan Y. (2014). Salinger’s Depiction of Trauma in The Catcher in The Rye. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(9). pp. 1825-1828

Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1988). Multivariate Correlates of Childhood Psychological and Physical Maltreatment Among University Women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 331–341.

Briere, J., &Runtz, M. (1990). Differential Adult Symptomatology Associated with Three Types of Child Abuse Histories. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14, 357–364.

Collins, B. G. and Thomas M. Collins.(2005). Crisis and Trauma, Developmental- Ecological Intervention. New York: Lahaska Press.

Colten, J. A. and Anthony P. M.(2006). Treating Trauma and Traumatic Grief in Children and Adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.

Driver, E. and Audrey, D. (1989). Child Sexual Abuse, Feminist Perspective. London: Macmillan.

Gold, S. N. (2000).Not Trauma Alone, Therapy for Child Abuse Survivors in Family and Social Context. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Grayson, J.(2012). "Evidence-based Treatments for Childhood Trauma."Virginia Child Protection Newsletter, 95, 1-20. Web. 20 Oct. 2015. .

Gross, A. B., & Keller, H. R. (1992). Long-term Consequences of Childhood Physical and Psychological Maltreatment.Aggressive Behavior, 18.pp. 171–185.

Hoglund, C. L., & Nicholas, K. B. (1995). Shame, Guilt, and Anger in College Students Exposed to Abusive Family Environments. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 141–157.

Lavery, B. (2002).Frozen.New York: Dramatist Play Service Inc.

Sedehi, K., T. and Talif, R. (2014). “Speaking Characters in Possessing Secret of Joy”. 3L; Language, Linguistics and Literature, The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 20 (2). pp. 55- 66.

Talif, R. and Sedehi, T. K. (2014). Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 22(2). pp. 621- 631.

Terr, L. (1990). Too Scared to Cry: Psychic Trauma in Childhood. New York: Harper & Row.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000)

Wieland, S. (1998). Techniques and Issues in Abuse- Focused Therapy with Children and Adolescents Addressing the Internal Trauma. California: Sage Publication.

Yahya, W. R, Rahman, E. A. and Zainal, Z. I. (2010). Male Gaze, Pornography and the Fetishised Female. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 5(1). pp. 25- 38.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Comparative Literature and Translation Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.