Stem Cells and their Extensive uses in Multiple Medical Fields and Especially in Neurological Diseases

Lidia Sarnataro


Since they were first discovered and used in animal models in the 1950th, stem cells are assuming a key role in the research field. These types of cells are undifferentiated cells deriving from a single cell that is able of a clonal proliferation differentiating into different cells and tissues. It is possible to classify them into two main groups considering their main features. Moreover, speaking about stem cells, it is important to mention the key role of some small non-coding RNA molecules also known MiRNAs (microRNAs) in the cell cycle regulation. Generally, stem cells are very useful in cellular therapy helping the regeneration of entire organs. They also allow a deep understanding of development and pathogenesis of many diseases and are useful in drug development. In general, the aim of this article is to talk about stem cells and their uses in multiple medical fields and especially in neurological diseases. A comprehensive explanation of stem cell classification and miRNAs role in the cell cycle regulation of these cells in clinical application as well as gene alterations in some diseases is included. And finally, very interesting stem cell research will be also discussed. Unfortunately, studies on adhesive arachnoiditis, a rare neurological disease mostly associated to Tarlov cysts (TC), are still few. In addition, other associations between arachnoiditis and Chiari malformation, as well as syringomyelia and ACM, have been found. And, finally, association between idiopathic intracerebral hypertension and arachnoiditis granulations (AGs) were also demonstrated.


Stem cells and their classification, Regenerative medicine, microRNA, cell cycle, ESC, MSCs, iPSCs, Somatic stem cell, cancer stem cell, NSCs, EAE, Spinal cord injury, Osteoarthritis, tendon-bone insertion injuries, retinal progenitor phenotypes, IVH, PHH

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