Sonographic Assessment of Fetal Cephalic Index in a Sampled Nigerian Population

Akwa E. Erim, Wueseter A. Ijever, Itoro S. Efanga, Benjamin E. Udoh


Objectives: The study aimed to determine fetal cephalic index among fetuses in Cross River State, Nigeria. Materials and Method: Transabdominal ultrasound was carried out on 220 women attending obstetric sonography in their second and third trimesters between September and December, 2020 in Cross River State, Nigeria. Each patient was scanned in a supine position, Bi-parietal diameter (BPD) measurements were taken from the outer edge of the closer temporoparietal bone to the inner edge of the farther temporoparietal bone. The occipito-frontal (OF) measurements were taken from the occipital bone to the frontal bone, and the cephalic index determined using the formula CI = BPD/OF *100. Results: Mean values of cephalic index and standard deviation was calculated for the fetuses at different gestational ages. The results showed that the mean cephalic index was 76.48±11.87. Male fetuses had cephalic index of 78.18±4.11 while female had cephalic index of 74.34±16.52. There was significant difference in the cephalic index between male and female fetuses (p<0.002). Conclusion: The present study shows the cephalic index of fetuses of cross river state population remained mesaticephalic from 13 weeks of gestation to full term. This may be attributed to the ethnicity and race of this group of people.


Cephalic Index, Fetus, Fetal Skull, Cephalo-pelvic Disproportion, Biparietal Diameter, Occipitofrontal Diameter

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