The Levels of English-Arabic Code-Mixing in Islamic Boarding School Students’ Daily Conversation

Ridwan Hanafiah, Ayu Rantika, Muhammad Yusuf


This study was aimed at discovering the levels of English-Arabic code-mixing in Islamic boarding school students’ daily conversation. This study departs from code-mixing theory in sociolinguistics. Qualitative approach was utilized as the research design. The data were in the form of word, phrase, and clause taken from utterances obtained by recording the conversations of students. From the data analysis taken from 20 situations, there were 98 utterances of code mixing, which were used by students in their conversation at Islamic boarding school covering intra- and extra-sentential code – mixing. The dominant occurrence is in word level totalling to 65 occurrences (66.4%), followed by clause level 13 occurrences (13.2%), phrase level 10 occurrences (10.2%), and sentence level 10 occurrences (10.2%). Therefore, the code – mixing did exist in students’ conversation. Even though the appearance of the code – mixing in students’ conversation was not really high but this needs to be re-examined the correct use of the code – mixing in orther to avoid the misunderstanding and miscommunication among the students and with teachers.


Code-Mixing, Conversation, Utterances, Boarding School

Full Text:



Al Hayek, R.S. (2016). Arabic–English code-mixing by Jordanian university students (Dissertation). Sydney: Western Sydney University.

Brezjanovic-Shogren, J. (2011). Analysis of code-switching and code-mixing among bilingual children: Two case studies of serbian-english language interaction (Master thesis). Kansas: Wichita State University.

Bucjan, E.R., & Bucjan, M.E. (2014). Code-switching and code-mixing in a geography class. SDSSU Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 2(2), 6-8.

Fishman, J.A. (1965). Bilingualism, intelligence and language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 49(4), 227-37.

Grosjean, F. (1982). Life with two languages: An introduction to bilingualism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Jendra, M.I.I. (2010). Sociolinguistics: The study of societies’ languages. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Lado, R. (1964). Language teaching: A scientific approach. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Marjohan, A. (1995). Sejarah singkat linguistik. Bandung: Institut Teknologi Bandung.

Mustafa, Z., & Al-Khatib, M. (1994). Code‐mixing of Arabic and English in teaching science. World Englishes. 13(2), 215-224.

Musyken, P (2000). Bilingual speech: A typology of code mixing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nababan, P.W.J. (1993) Sosiolinguistik: suatu pengantar. Jakarta: Gramedia.

Sridhar, S. N., & Sridhar, K. K. (1980). The syntax and psycholinguistics of bilingual code mixing. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie, 34(4), 407-416.

Suganda, L.A. (2012). Code switching and code mixing done by teachers of SMA kusuma bangsa Palembang. Jurnal Holistics, 4(7), 1-12.

Sumarsih, Siregar M, Bahri, S & Sanjaya, D. (2014). Code switching and code mixing in Indonesia: Study in sociolinguistics. English Language and Literature Studies, 4(1), 77-92.

Siregar, B.U. (1996). Code alternation in bilingual speech behaviour. Medan: USU Press.

Trudgill, P. (1973). Linguistic change and diffusion: Description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect geography. Language in Society, 3(2), 215-246.

Wardhaugh, R. (1986). An introduction to sociolinguistics. New York: Basil Blackwell.

Wardhaugh, R. (1998). An introduction to sociolinguistics (3rd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.

Wardhaugh, R. (2006). An introduction to sociolinguistics (5th ed.). Victoria: Blackwell.

Zainuddin. (2016). Levels of code switching on EFL student’s daily language; Study of language production Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7(3), 278-281. Doi:10.7575/aiac.alls.v.7n.3p.278



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.