Investigating Demotivation in Learning English: An Extension to Sakai and Kikuchi’s (2009) Framework

K. Sarojani Devi Krishnan, Zahid Hussain Pathan


The aim of this research is to investigate the factors of demotivation in L2 learning of Pakistani undergraduates at the University of Balochistan, Quetta. A mixed-methods  research design was employed in this study to explore the factors of demotivation.  Quantitative data was obtained from the responses of a population of 116 first semester undergraduates in a questionnaire adopted from Sakai and Kikuchi (2009). The questionnaire comprised 35 close-ended items on a 5-point Likert scale on six factors of demotivation: grammar-based teaching, teacher’s behaviour, course contents and teaching materials, effects of low test scores, classroom environment, and lack of self-confidence and interest. Qualitative data was obtained from an open-ended question on students’ demotivating experiences in learning English in the same questionnaire.  Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the quantitative data while the qualitative data was analyzed by using content analysis to extract the themes or factors of demotivation and their categories based on Sakai and Kikuchi’s framework. The findings reveal that all six factors were cited by students as demotivational factors with teaching method, lack of facilities and course content being the most cited factors, hence supporting Sakai and Kikuchi’s (2009) framework.  In addition, the qualitative data suggests that a new factor emerged – negative attitude of society towards English language - hence a contribution to the body of literature. The findings of the study have implications on the teaching and learning of English in Pakistan.

Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.