Teachers’ Efficacy, Identity and Motivational Strategies and their Effects on L2 learners’ Achievement

Mehrnoosh Karimi, Elham Nikbakht


The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between three teacher-related variables, namely, teaching efficacy, institutional identity and motivational strategy use, with students’ L2 achievement. The study further intended to pinpoint gender differences in each of the aforementioned teacher-related variables. To this end, 120 (60 male and 60 female) EFL teachers took part in the study by completing Teacher Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001), Institutional Identity Scale developed by Azimi (2012), and Motivational Strategy Use Scale developed by Cheng and Dornyei (2007). Furthermore, the final class outcomes of the teachers’ students (n=2045) were collected. The participants were EFL learners and their teachers. The results of Pearson Correlations indicated that there existed significant and positive relationship between the three aforementioned teacher-related variables of EFL teachers and their students’ L2 achievement. The results revealed that EFL teachers’ efficacy, institutional identity and motivational strategy use had a significant and positive relationship with their students’ L2 achievement. A Significant difference was found between the male and female EFL teachers. Also, Motivational strategy use was the strongest predictor of Iranian EFL students’ L2 achievement. Based on the findings of the study, a number of pedagogical implications could be recommended. The findings will provide rational support for proposing that EFL teachers should invest in improving their knowledge of teaching efficacy, institutional identity and motivational strategy use.


Teaching Efficacy, Institutional Identity, Motivational Strategy Use, EFL Teachers, L2 Achievement, Gender Differences

Full Text:



Akbari, R., Kiany, G. R., Naeeni, I., Naeeni, M. I., & Karimi Allvar, N. (2008). Teachers’ teaching styles, sense of efficacy and reflectivity as correlates of students’ achievement outcomes. IJAL, 11 (1), 1-28.

Al-Mahrooqi, R., Abrar-ul-Hassan, S. & Asante, C. (2012). Analyzing the use of motivational strategies by EFL teachers in Oman. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, 8 (1), 36-76.

Azimi, H. (2012). An ethnographic study of English teachers’ institutional identity in high schools, language institutes, and universities. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84 (2), 191-215.

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In: F. Pajares, T. Urdan. (Eds) Self efficacy beliefs of adolescents (307-337). Greenwich: Information Age Publishing. 307–337.

Blackmore, J., & Sachs, (2007). Performing and reforming leaders: Gender, educational restructuring, and organizational change. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Brown, T. (2006). Negotiating psychological disturbance in pre-service teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 675–689.

Chacon, C. T. (2005). Teachers’ perceived efficacy among English as a foreign language teachers in middle schools in Venezuela. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(3), 257-272.

Cheng, H. F., & Dornyei, Z. (2007). The use of motivational strategies in language instruction: The case of EFL Teaching in Taiwan. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 153-174.

Day, C., & Gu, Q. (2007). Variations in the conditions for teachers’ professional learning and development: sustaining commitment and effectiveness over a career. Oxford Review of Education, 33(4), 423-443.

De Le Torre Cruz, M., Arias, P. (2007). Comparative analysis of expectancies of efficacy in in-service and prospective teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 641-652.

Dornyei, Z. (1994) Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 78, 273-284.

Dornyei, Z. (2001). Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge. University Press.

Dornyei, Z., & Guilloteaux, M. J. (2008). Motivating language learners: A classroom-oriented investigation of the effects of motivational strategies on student motivation. TESOL Quarterly, 42, 55-77.

Dornyei, Z. & Otto, I. (1998). Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 4, 43-69.

Esmaili, D., & Dastgoshadeh, A. (2016). The Relationship among University Lecturers’ Institutional identity, Professional Identity, and Teaching Efficacy. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(19), 1-20.

Friedman, I. A., & Kass, E. (2002). Teacher self-efficacy: A classroom-organization conceptualization. Teaching and teacher education, 18(6), 675-686.

Gee, J. (2001). Identity as an analytic lens for research in education. Review of Research in Education. 25, 99-125.

Ghafar Samar, R., Kiany, G.R., Akbari, R. & Azimi, H. (2011). Institutional identity of teachers: A determinant of teacher efficacy. TELL, 5, 2, 1-29.

Goddard, R.D., Hoy, W.K., & Hoy, A. W. (2004). Collective efficacy beliefs: Theoretical developments, empirical evidence, and future directions. Educational Researcher, 55(3), 3-13.

Gohier, C., Chevrier, J., & Anadon, M. (2007). Future teachers' identity: Between an idealistic vision and a realistic view. McGill Journal of Education, 42(1), 141-156.

Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. (2008). Looking in classrooms. (10th ed). NJ: Pearson Publications.

Gu, Y. (2002). Gender, academic major, and vocabulary learning strategies of Chinese EFL learners RELC Journal, 33(1), 35-54.

Guilloteaux, M. J. & Dornyei, Z. (2008). Motivating language learners: a classroom-oriented investigation of motivational strategies on student motivation. TESOL Quarterly, 42(1), 55-77.

Hemmings, B., & Kay, R. (2009). Lecturer self-efficacy: Its related dimensions and the influence of gender and qualifications. Issues in Educational Research, 19(3), 243-254.

Hogg. H. A. (2006). Social identity theory. In P. J. Burke (Ed.), Contemporary social psychological theories (pp. 111-135). Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Joseph, J. (2004). Language and identity: National, ethnic, religious. Springer.

Kelchtermans, G. (2005). Teachers’ emotions in educational reforms: Self-understanding, vulnerable commitment and micropolitical literacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(8), 995-1006.

Klavas, A. (1994). In Greensboro, North Carolina: Learning style program boosts achievement and test scores. The Clearing House, 67(3), 149-151.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (1994). The post method condition: (E)merging Strategies for second/foreign language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 28(1), 27-48.

LaRocco, D.J. & Bruns, D.A. (2006). Practitioner to professor: An examination of second career academics' entry into academia. Education, 126(4), 626-639.

Lasley, T. J., Siedentop, D., & Yinger, R. (2006). A systemic approach to enhancing teacher quality: The Ohio model. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(1), 13-21.

Nosratinia, M., & Zaker, A. (2014). Metacognitive attributes and liberated progress: The association among second language learners’ critical thinking, creativity, and autonomy. SAGE Open 4, 3, 1-10.

O'Malley, J. M. & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge.

Oxford, R. & Crookall, D. (1989). Research on language learning strategies: methods, findings and instructional issues. The Modern Language Journal, 73(iv), 404-419.

Rockoff, J. E. (2004). The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: Evidence from panel data. The American Economic Review, 94(2), 247-252.

Ross, J. A., & Gray, P. (2006). Transformational leadership and teacher commitment to organizational values: The mediating effects of collective teacher efficacy. School effectiveness and school improvement, 17(2), 179-199.

Schacter, J., & Fagnano, C. (1999). Does computer technology improve student learning and achievement? How, when, and under what conditions?. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 20(4), 329-343.

Thanasoulas, D. (2002). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The internet TESL journal, 8(11), 6-25.

Tschannen- Moran, M., &, Hoy, A. W. (2001). The differential antecedents of self -efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23 (6), 944-956.

Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68, 202-248.

Varghese, M., Morgan, B., Johnston, B., & Johnson, K. A. (2005). Theorizing language teacher identity: Three perspectives and beyond. Journal of language, Identity, and Education, 4(1), 21-44.

Ware, H., & Kitsantas, A. (2007). Teacher and collective efficacy beliefs as predictors of professional commitment. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(5), 303-310.

Wenden, A. & Rubin, J. (eds). (1987). Learner strategies in language learning. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall International.

Williams, M., & Burden, R. (1997). Psychology for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.10n.5p.20


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.