Developing EFL Writing Skills through WhatsApp Dialogue Journaling

Ebru Noyan, Zeynep Kocoglu

Abstract


The present study attempts to explore the effects of WhatsApp and Pen/Paper dialogue journal writing techniques on university students’ writing performance. 45 freshmen students from Sociology department of State University in Turkey, participated in the current study forming three homogenous groups of 15, namely WhatsApp dialogue journaling (WDJ), pen/paper dialogue journaling (Pap DJW) and the control group. The experimental groups (WDJ and Pap DJW) received 12 treatment sessions expecting students to create dialogues through dialogue journaling while the control group had no treatment except weekly class requirements. Data were collected through a pre- and post-writing test administered to all groups and an open-ended questionnaire on attitudes administered just to the experimental groups. Paired-samples T-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to determine the differences among the three groups while a content analysis was carried out to examine the attitudes. The findings related to the pre- and post-tests of all groups indicated a significant progress in overall writing production. When considering each of writing components separately; however, the differences between the pre and post tests revealed no improvement in vocabulary competence of WhatsApp group or organization skills of control group. On the other hand, pen and paper group students made a remarkable progress in all writing components. In addition, ANOVA results showed no significant difference among the groups regarding writing overall production or any component performance. Finally, both pen and paper and WhatsApp group indicated positive attitudes and a great desire towards utilizing dialogue journaling in EFL writing classes. This study will help teachers and learners of English and researchers to find out the efficacy of target writing techniques and thus make appropriate decisions concerning EFL learning.

Keywords


EFL Writing, WhatsApp Dialogue Journaling, Pen and Paper Dialogue Journaling, Mobile Learning, Social Media in EFL Classes

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alber-Morgan, S. R., Hessler, T., & Konrad, M. (2007). Teaching writing for keeps. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(3), 107-128.

Agca, R. K., & Özdemir, S. (2013). Foreign language vocabulary learning with mobile technologies. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 83, 781-785.

Al-Emran, M., Elsherif, H. M., & Shaalan, K. (2016). Investigating attitudes towards the use of mobile learning in higher education. Computers in Human Behavior, 56, 93-102.

Alexander, B. (2004). Going nomadic: Mobile learning in higher education. Educause Review, 39(5), 28-34.

Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Alhajri, R. A., & Al-Sharhan, S. (2016, August 24). Perceptions and challenges of mobile learning in Kuwait. Journal of King Saud University-Computer and Information Sciences.

Alsaleem, B. I. A. (2013). The Effect of" WhatsApp" Electronic Dialogue Journaling on Improving Writing Vocabulary Word Choice and Voice of EFL Undergraduate Saudi Students. Arab World English Journal, 4(3).

Amry, A. B. (2014). The impact of WhatsApp mobile social learning on the achievement and attitudes of female students compared with face to face learning in the classroom. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 10(22). 116-136.

Andujar, A. (2016). Benefits of mobile instant messaging to develop ESL writing. System, 62, 63-76.

Anglano, C. (2014). Forensic analysis of WhatsApp Messenger on Android smartphones. Digital Investigation, 11(3), 201-213.

Ashiyan, Z., & Salehi, H. (2016). Impact of WhatsApp on Learning and Retention of Collocation Knowledge among Iranian EFL Learners. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7(5), 112-127.

Bansal, T., & Joshi, D. (2014). A study of students’ experiences of mobile learning. Global Journal of Human Social Science. 14 (4), 26-33.

Barhoumi, C. (2015). The Effectiveness of WhatsApp mobile learning activities guided by activity theory on students' knowledge management. Contemporary Educational Technology, 6(3), 221-238.

Basal, A., Yilmaz, S., Tanriverdi, A., & Sari, L. (2016). Effectiveness of mobile applications in vocabulary teaching. Contemporary Educational Technology, 7(1), 47-59.

BintiMistar, I., & Embi, M. (2016). Students’ perception on the use of WhatsApp as a learning tool in ESL classroom. Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 4, 96-104.

Bouhnik, D., & Deshen, M. (2014). WhatsApp goes to school: Mobile instant messaging between teachers and students. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 13, 217-231.

Briz-Ponce, L., Pereira, A., Carvalho, L., Juanes-Méndez, J. A., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2017). Learning with mobile technologies–Students’ behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 612-620.

Denne-Bolton, S. (2013). The dialogue journal: A tool for building better writers. English Teaching Forum. 51(2), 2-11.

Dunlap, J. C. (2006). Using guided reflective journaling activities to capture students’ changing perceptions. TechTrends, 50(6), 20-26.

ECAR (2016). ICT Facts and Figures. International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Retrieved from https://www.educause.edu/

Fattah, S. F. E. S. A. (2015). The effectiveness of using WhatsApp messenger as one of mobile learning techniques to develop students' writing skills. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(32), 115-127.

Garlikov, R. (2000). Significant Differences Between Writing and Talking: Why Talking Seems Easier. Retrieved June, 21, 2007.

Hani, N. A. B. (2014). The impact of WhatsApp group’s utilization on EFL students’ vocabulary writing amelioration. International Journal of University Teaching and Faculty Development, 5(2), 73-87.

Jacobs, H., Zinkgraf, S.,Wormuth, D., Hartfiel, V., & Hughey, J. (1981). Testing ESL composition: A practical approach. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Jafari, S., & Chalak, A. (2016). The Role of WhatsApp in teaching vocabulary to Iranian EFL learners at junior high school. English Language Teaching, 9(8), 85-92.

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68.

Kim, J. (2005). A community within the classroom: Dialogue journal writing of adult ESL learners. Adult basic education, 15(1), 21.

Koole, M. L. (2009). A model for framing mobile learning. In M. Ally (Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training (pp.25-47). Athabasca, AB: Athabasca University Press.

Lee, K. J., & Kim, J. E. (2013). A mobile-based learning tool to improve writing skills of EFL learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 106, 112-119.

Madkour, M. (2016). The effect of digital dialogued journaling on improving English writing: A linguistic communicative approach. English Language Teaching, 9(8), 241-263.

Montag, et al. (2015). Smartphone usage in the 21st century: who is active on WhatsApp? BMC Research Notes, 8(1), 331.

Naba'h, A. A. (2013). The effect of using electronic dialogue journals on English writing performance of Jordanian students. International Arab Journal of e-Technology., 3(1), 37-43.

Nitza, D., & Roman, Y. (2016). WhatsApp messaging: Achievements and success in academia. International Journal of Higher Education, 5(4), 255.

Peyton, JK. (1993). Dialogue Journals: Interactive Writing to Develop Language and Literacy. Retrieved from ERIC database (ED354789).

Rezaei, S., & Meshkatian, M. A. (2017). Iranian Teachers’ Attitude towards Using Social Media and Technology to Increase Interaction amongst Students inside or outside the Classroom. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 7(6), 419.

Rehm, M., & Notten, A. (2016). Twitter as an informal learning space for teachers! The role of social capital in Twitter conversations among teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 60, 215-223.

Richards, P. A. (1995). Using Dialogue Journals to Enhance Writing Skills. Retrieved from ERIC database (ED379679).

Ruan, J., & Beach, S. A. (2005). Using online peer dialogue journaling to promote reflection in elementary preservice teachers. Action in Teacher Education, 27(3), 64-75.

Shih, R. C., Lee, C., & Cheng, T. F. (2015). Effects of English spelling learning experience through a mobile LINE App for college students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 2634-2638.

So, S. (2016). Mobile instant messaging support for teaching and learning in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 31, 32-42.

Song, M. (1997). The Effect of Dialogue Journal Writing on Writing Quality, Reading Comprehension, and Writing Apprehension of EFL College Students. Retrieved from ERIC database (ED410766).

Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2003). Using mobile web and video phones in English language teaching: Projects with Japanese college students. Directions in CALL: Experience, experiments & evaluation, 207-224.

Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in English education in Japan. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21(3), 217-228.

Thorson, H. (2011). University students’ perceptions on dialogue-journal writing in a networked society. ZeitschriftfürInterkulturellenFremdsprachenunterricht, 16(2). 204-221.

Trenkov, L. (2014). Managing teacher-student interaction via WhatsApp platform. EDULEARN14 Proceedings, 6596-6600.

Van De Bogart, W. (2011). Adopting cell phones in the classroom: A study of students' attitudes and behaviors on using cell phones both in and out of the classroom. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management & Organizational Learning (pp. 571-579).

Veletsianos, G., & Kimmons, R. (2016). Scholars in an increasingly open and digital world: How do education professors and students use Twitter? The Internet and Higher Education, 30, 1-10.

Wang, Y. M. (1996). E-Mail Dialogue Journaling in an ESL Reading and Writing Classroom. Retrieved from ERIC database (ED397845).

Wheeler, S., Yeomans, P., & Wheeier, D. (2008). The good, the bad and the wiki: Evaluating student‐generated content for collaborative learning. British journal of educational technology, 39(6), 987-995.

Willemse, J. J. (2015). Undergraduate nurses’ reflections on WhatsApp use in improving primary health care education. Curationis, 38(2), 1-7.

Winet, D. (2016). Mobile Instant Messaging in the ESL Writing Class. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 20(3).

Yeboah, J., & Ewur, G. D. (2014). The impact of WhatsApp messenger usage on students’ performance in tertiary institutions in Ghana. Journal of Education and practice, 5(6), 157-164.

Yoshihara, R. (2008). The bridge between students and teachers: The effect of dialogue journal writing. Language Teacher, 32(11), 3-7.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.10n.2p.38

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.